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Apache Cassandra Connection Details

Introduction

Connector Version

This documentation is based on version 21.0.8662 of the connector.

Get Started

Cassandra Version Support

The connector supports CQL versions 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0

Establish a Connection

Connect to the Server

Set the Server and Database connection properties to connect to Cassandra.

To connect to a distributed system, you can set Server to a comma-separated list of servers and ports, separated by colons. You will also need to set ConsistencyLevel.

The following sections detail connection properties for authentication, security, and data access. See Fine-Tuning Data Access if you need more control over connecting to your system.

Connect to CosmosDB with the Cassandra API

To obtain the connection string needed to connect to a Cosmos DB account using the Cassandra API, log in to the Azure Portal, select Azure Cosmos DB, and select your account. In the Settings section, click Connection String and set the following values.

  • Server: Set this to the Host value, the FQDN of the server provisioned for your account. You can also specify the port here or in Port.
  • Port: Set this to the port.
  • Database: Set this to the database you want to read from and write to.
  • User: The Cosmos DB account name.
  • Password: The account key associated with the Cosmos DB account.
  • UseSSL: Set to True

Secure Cassandra Connections

You can set UseSSL to negotiate SSL/TLS encryption when you connect. By default, the connector attempts to negotiate SSL/TLS by checking the server's certificate against the system's trusted certificate store. To specify another certificate, see the SSLServerCert property for the available formats to do so.

Authenticate to Cassandra

The connector supports Basic authentication with login credentials and the additional authentication features of DataStax Enterprise (DSE) Cassandra. The following sections detail connection properties your authentication method may require.

You need to set AuthScheme to the value corresponding to the authenticator configured for your system. You specify the authenticator in the authenticator property in the cassandra.yaml file. This file is typically found in /etc/dse/cassandra. or through the DSE Unified Authenticator on DSE Cassandra.

Basic Authentication

Basic authentication is supported through Cassandra's built-in default PasswordAuthenticator.

  • Set the AuthScheme property to 'BASIC' and set the User and Password properties.
  • In the cassandra.yaml file, set the authenticator property to 'PasswordAuthenticator'.
Kerberos Authentication

Kerberos authentication is supported through DataStax Enterprise Unified Authentication.

  • Set the AuthScheme property to 'KERBEROS' and set the User and Password properties.
  • Set the KerberosKDC, KerberosRealm, and KerberosSPN properties.
  • In the cassandra.yaml file, set the authenticator property to "com.datastax.bdp.cassandra.auth.DseAuthenticator".
  • Modify the authentication_options section in the dse.yaml file, specifying the default_schema and other_schemas properties as 'kerberos'.
  • Modify the kerberos_options section in the dse.yaml file, specifying the keytab, service_principle, http_principle and qop properties

Please see Using Kerberos for more details on how to set connection properties in order to connect to Kerberos.

LDAP Authentication

LDAP authentication is supported through DataStax Enterprise Unified Authentication.

  • Set the AuthScheme property to 'LDAP' and set the User and Password properties.
  • In the cassandra.yaml file, set the authenticator property to "com.datastax.bdp.cassandra.auth.DseAuthenticator".
  • Modify the authentication_options section in the dse.yaml file, specifying the default_schema and other_schemas properties as 'ldap'.
  • Modify the ldap_options section in the dse.yaml file, specifying the server_host, server_port, search_dn, search_password, user_search_base, and user_search_filter properties
Use PKI

You can specify a client certificate to authenticate the connector with SSLClientCert, SSLClientCertType, SSLClientCertSubject, and SSLClientCertPassword.

Use Kerberos

This section shows how to use the connector to authenticate to Cassandra using Kerberos.

Authenticate with Kerberos

To authenticate to Cassandra using Kerberos, set the following properties:

  • AuthScheme: Set this to KERBEROS.
  • KerberosKDC: Set this to the host name or IP Address of your Kerberos KDC machine.
  • KerberosRealm: Set this to the realm of the Cassandra Kerberos principal. This will be the value after the '@' symbol (for instance, EXAMPLE.COM) of the principal value (for instance, hbase/MyHost@EXAMPLE.COM).
  • KerberosSPN: Set this to the service and host of the Cassandra Kerberos Principal. This will be the value prior to the '@' symbol (for instance, hbase/MyHost) of the principal value (for instance, hbase/MyHost@EXAMPLE.COM).

Retrieve the Kerberos Ticket

You can use one of the following options to retrieve the required Kerberos ticket.

MIT Kerberos Credential Cache File

This option enables you to use the MIT Kerberos Ticket Manager or kinit command to get tickets. Note that you won't need to set the User or Password connection properties with this option.

  1. Ensure that you have an environment variable created called KRB5CCNAME.
  2. Set the KRB5CCNAME environment variable to a path pointing to your credential cache file (for instance, C:\krb_cache\krb5cc_0 or /tmp/krb5cc_0). This file will be created when generating your ticket with MIT Kerberos Ticket Manager.
  3. To obtain a ticket, open the MIT Kerberos Ticket Manager application, click Get Ticket, enter your principal name and password, then click OK. If successful, ticket information will appear in Kerberos Ticket Manager and will now be stored in the credential cache file.
  4. Now that the credential cache file has been created, the connector will use the cache file to obtain the kerberos ticket to connect to Cassandra.

As an alternative to setting the KRB5CCNAME environment variable, you can directly set the file path using the KerberosTicketCache property. When set, the connector will use the specified cache file to obtain the kerberos ticket to connect to Cassandra.

Keytab File

If the KRB5CCNAME environment variable has not been set, you can retrieve a Kerberos ticket using a Keytab File. To do this, set the User property to the desired username and set the KerberosKeytabFile property to a file path pointing to the keytab file associated with the user.

User and Password

If both the KRB5CCNAME environment variable and the _KerberosKeytabFile_ property have not been set, you can retrieve a ticket using a User and Password combination. To do this, set the User and Password properties to the user/password combo that you use to authenticate with Cassandra.

Cross-Realm Authentication

More complex Kerberos environments may require cross-realm authentication where multiple realms and KDC servers are used (e.g. where one realm/KDC is used for user authentication and another realm/KDC used for obtaining the service ticket).

In such an environment, the KerberosRealm and KerberosKDC properties can be set to the values required for user authentication. The KerberosServiceRealm and KerberosServiceKDC properties can be set to the values required to obtain the service ticket.

Fine-Tuning Data Access

Fine Tuning Data Access

You can use the following properties to gain greater control over Cassandra API features and the strategies the connector uses to surface them:

  • AllowFiltering: Set this property to allow the server to process slow-performing searches.

  • UseJsonFormat: Set this property to use CQL literals instead of JSON.

  • QueryPassthrough: This property enables you to use native CQL statements instead of SQL.

  • RowScanDepth: This property determines the number of rows that will be scanned to detect column data types when generating table metadata.

    This property applies if you are working with the dynamic schemas generated from Automatic Schema Discovery or if you are using QueryPassthrough.

NoSQL Database

Cassandra is a NoSQL database that provides high performance, availability, and scalability. However, these capabilities are not necessarily incompatible with a standards-compliant query language like SQL-92. The connector models Cassandra tables into relational tables and translates SQL queries into calls to the Cassandra API, the CQL (Cassandra Query Language) binary protocol.

The equivalent of a table in Cassandra is a column family. Column families contain columns of related data. Like other NoSQL databases, Cassandra allows complex types of fields such as set, list, and map. A column family is a nested map data structure. This can be represented as a JSON object.

The connector offers two ways to model Cassandra objects. The Automatic Schema Discovery scheme automatically finds the data types in a Cassandra object by scanning a configured number of rows of the object. You can use RowScanDepth, FlattenArrays, and FlattenObjects to control the relational representation of the tables in Cassandra.

Automatic Schema Discovery

The connector automatically infers a relational schema by inspecting a series of Cassandra documents in a collection. You can use the RowScanDepth property to define the number of documents the connector will scan to do so. The columns identified during the discovery process depend on the FlattenArrays and FlattenObjects properties.

Flatten Objects

If FlattenObjects is set, all nested objects will be flattened into a series of columns. For example, consider the following document:

{
  id: 12,
  name: "Lohia Manufacturers Inc.",
  address: {street: "Main Street", city: "Chapel Hill", state: "NC"},
  offices: ["Chapel Hill", "London", "New York"],
  annual_revenue: 35,600,000
}

This document will be represented by the following columns:

Column Name Data Type Example Value
id Integer 12
name String Lohia Manufacturers Inc.
address.street String Main Street
address.city String Chapel Hill
address.state String NC
offices String ["Chapel Hill", "London", "New York"]
annual_revenue Double 35, 600, 000

If FlattenObjects is not set, then the address.street, address.city, and address.state columns will not be broken apart. The address column of type string will instead represent the entire object. Its value would be {street: "Main Street", city: "Chapel Hill", state: "NC"}. See JSON Functions for more details on working with JSON aggregates.

Flatten Arrays

The FlattenArrays property can be used to flatten array values into columns of their own. This is only recommended for arrays that are expected to be short, for example the coordinates below:

"coord": [ -73.856077, 40.848447 ]

The FlattenArrays property can be set to 2 to represent the array above as follows:

Column Name Data Type Example Value
coord.0 Float -73.856077
coord.1 Float 40.848447

It is best to leave other unbounded arrays as they are and piece out the data for them as needed using JSON Functions.

JSON Functions

The connector can return JSON structures as column values. The connector enables you to use standard SQL functions to work with these JSON structures. The examples in this section use the following array:

[
     { "grade": "A", "score": 2 },
     { "grade": "A", "score": 6 },
     { "grade": "A", "score": 10 },
     { "grade": "A", "score": 9 },
     { "grade": "B", "score": 14 }
]

JSON_EXTRACT

The JSON_EXTRACT function can extract individual values from a JSON object. The following query returns the values shown below based on the JSON path passed as the second argument to the function:

SELECT Name, JSON_EXTRACT(grades,'[0].grade') AS Grade, JSON_EXTRACT(grades,'[0].score') AS Score FROM Students;
Column Name Example Value
Grade A
Score 2

JSON_COUNT

The JSON_COUNT function returns the number of elements in a JSON array within a JSON object. The following query returns the number of elements specified by the JSON path passed as the second argument to the function:

SELECT Name, JSON_COUNT(grades,'[x]') AS NumberOfGrades FROM Students;
Column Name Example Value
NumberOfGrades 5

JSON_SUM

The JSON_SUM function returns the sum of the numeric values of a JSON array within a JSON object. The following query returns the total of the values specified by the JSON path passed as the second argument to the function:

SELECT Name, JSON_SUM(score,'[x].score') AS TotalScore FROM Students;
Column Name Example Value
TotalScore 41

JSON_MIN

The JSON_MIN function returns the lowest numeric value of a JSON array within a JSON object. The following query returns the minimum value specified by the JSON path passed as the second argument to the function:

SELECT Name, JSON_MIN(score,'[x].score') AS LowestScore FROM Students;
Column Name Example Value
LowestScore 2

JSON_MAX

The JSON_MAX function returns the highest numeric value of a JSON array within a JSON object. The following query returns the maximum value specified by the JSON path passed as the second argument to the function:

SELECT Name, JSON_MAX(score,'[x].score') AS HighestScore FROM Students;
Column Name Example Value
HighestScore 14

JSON

The JSON function can be used to retrieve the entire table as a JSON string. See the following query and its result as an example:

SELECT JSON(*) FROM Customers;

The query above will return the entire table as shown.

{ "id": 12, "name": "Lohia Manufacturers Inc.", "address": { "street": "Main Street", "city": "Chapel Hill", "state": "NC"}, "offices": [ "Chapel Hill", "London", "New York" ], "annual_revenue": 35,600,000 }

Data Type Mapping

Data Type Mappings

The connector maps types from the data source to the corresponding data type available in the schema. The table below documents these mappings.

Note that string columns can map to different data types depending on their length.

Cassandra Schema
ascii string
bigint long
blob binary
boolean bool
counter long
date date
decimal decimal
double float
float float
inet string
int int
list string
map string
set string
smallint int
text string
time time
timestamp datetime
timeuuid string
tinyint int
tuple string
udt string
uuid string
varchar string
varint string

System Tables

You can query the system tables described in this section to access schema information, information on data source functionality, and batch operation statistics.

Schema Tables

The following tables return database metadata for Cassandra:

Data Source Tables

The following tables return information about how to connect to and query the data source:

  • sys_connection_props: Returns information on the available connection properties.
  • sys_sqlinfo: Describes the SELECT queries that the connector can offload to the data source.

Query Information Tables

The following table returns query statistics for data modification queries, including batch operations:

  • sys_identity: Returns information about batch operations or single updates.

sys_catalogs

Lists the available databases.

The following query retrieves all databases determined by the connection string:

SELECT * FROM sys_catalogs
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The database name.

sys_schemas

Lists the available schemas.

The following query retrieves all available schemas:

SELECT * FROM sys_schemas
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The database name.
SchemaName String The schema name.

sys_tables

Lists the available tables.

The following query retrieves the available tables and views:

SELECT * FROM sys_tables
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The database containing the table or view.
SchemaName String The schema containing the table or view.
TableName String The name of the table or view.
TableType String The table type (table or view).
Description String A description of the table or view.
IsUpdateable Boolean Whether the table can be updated.

sys_tablecolumns

Describes the columns of the available tables and views.

The following query returns the columns and data types for the ""."Sample".Products table:

SELECT ColumnName, DataTypeName FROM sys_tablecolumns WHERE TableName='Products' AND CatalogName='' AND SchemaName='Sample'
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The name of the database containing the table or view.
SchemaName String The schema containing the table or view.
TableName String The name of the table or view containing the column.
ColumnName String The column name.
DataTypeName String The data type name.
DataType Int32 An integer indicating the data type. This value is determined at run time based on the environment.
Length Int32 The storage size of the column.
DisplaySize Int32 The designated column's normal maximum width in characters.
NumericPrecision Int32 The maximum number of digits in numeric data. The column length in characters for character and date-time data.
NumericScale Int32 The column scale or number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
IsNullable Boolean Whether the column can contain null.
Description String A brief description of the column.
Ordinal Int32 The sequence number of the column.
IsAutoIncrement String Whether the column value is assigned in fixed increments.
IsGeneratedColumn String Whether the column is generated.
IsHidden Boolean Whether the column is hidden.
IsArray Boolean Whether the column is an array.

sys_procedures

Lists the available stored procedures.

The following query retrieves the available stored procedures:

SELECT * FROM sys_procedures
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The database containing the stored procedure.
SchemaName String The schema containing the stored procedure.
ProcedureName String The name of the stored procedure.
Description String A description of the stored procedure.
ProcedureType String The type of the procedure, such as PROCEDURE or FUNCTION.

sys_procedureparameters

Describes stored procedure parameters.

The following query returns information about all of the input parameters for the SelectEntries stored procedure:

SELECT * FROM sys_procedureparameters WHERE ProcedureName='SelectEntries' AND Direction=1 OR Direction=2
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The name of the database containing the stored procedure.
SchemaName String The name of the schema containing the stored procedure.
ProcedureName String The name of the stored procedure containing the parameter.
ColumnName String The name of the stored procedure parameter.
Direction Int32 An integer corresponding to the type of the parameter: input (1), input/output (2), or output(4). input/output type parameters can be both input and output parameters.
DataTypeName String The name of the data type.
DataType Int32 An integer indicating the data type. This value is determined at run time based on the environment.
Length Int32 The number of characters allowed for character data. The number of digits allowed for numeric data.
NumericPrecision Int32 The maximum precision for numeric data. The column length in characters for character and date-time data.
NumericScale Int32 The number of digits to the right of the decimal point in numeric data.
IsNullable Boolean Whether the parameter can contain null.
IsRequired Boolean Whether the parameter is required for execution of the procedure.
IsArray Boolean Whether the parameter is an array.
Description String The description of the parameter.
Ordinal Int32 The index of the parameter.

sys_keycolumns

Describes the primary and foreign keys.

The following query retrieves the primary key for the ""."Sample".Products table:

SELECT * FROM sys_keycolumns WHERE IsKey='True' AND TableName='Products' AND CatalogName='' AND SchemaName='Sample'
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The name of the database containing the key.
SchemaName String The name of the schema containing the key.
TableName String The name of the table containing the key.
ColumnName String The name of the key column.
IsKey Boolean Whether the column is a primary key in the table referenced in the TableName field.
IsForeignKey Boolean Whether the column is a foreign key referenced in the TableName field.
PrimaryKeyName String The name of the primary key.
ForeignKeyName String The name of the foreign key.
ReferencedCatalogName String The database containing the primary key.
ReferencedSchemaName String The schema containing the primary key.
ReferencedTableName String The table containing the primary key.
ReferencedColumnName String The column name of the primary key.

sys_foreignkeys

Describes the foreign keys.

The following query retrieves all foreign keys which refer to other tables:

SELECT * FROM sys_foreignkeys WHERE ForeignKeyType = 'FOREIGNKEY_TYPE_IMPORT'
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The name of the database containing the key.
SchemaName String The name of the schema containing the key.
TableName String The name of the table containing the key.
ColumnName String The name of the key column.
PrimaryKeyName String The name of the primary key.
ForeignKeyName String The name of the foreign key.
ReferencedCatalogName String The database containing the primary key.
ReferencedSchemaName String The schema containing the primary key.
ReferencedTableName String The table containing the primary key.
ReferencedColumnName String The column name of the primary key.
ForeignKeyType String Designates whether the foreign key is an import (points to other tables) or export (referenced from other tables) key.

sys_indexes

Describes the available indexes. By filtering on indexes, you can write more selective queries with faster query response times.

The following query retrieves all indexes that are not primary keys:

SELECT * FROM sys_indexes WHERE IsPrimary='false'
Columns
Name Type Description
CatalogName String The name of the database containing the index.
SchemaName String The name of the schema containing the index.
TableName String The name of the table containing the index.
IndexName String The index name.
ColumnName String The name of the column associated with the index.
IsUnique Boolean True if the index is unique. False otherwise.
IsPrimary Boolean True if the index is a primary key. False otherwise.
Type Int16 An integer value corresponding to the index type: statistic (0), clustered (1), hashed (2), or other (3).
SortOrder String The sort order: A for ascending or D for descending.
OrdinalPosition Int16 The sequence number of the column in the index.

sys_connection_props

Returns information on the available connection properties and those set in the connection string.

When querying this table, the config connection string should be used:

jdbc:cdata:cassandra:config:

This connection string enables you to query this table without a valid connection.

The following query retrieves all connection properties that have been set in the connection string or set through a default value:

SELECT * FROM sys_connection_props WHERE Value <> ''
Columns
Name Type Description
Name String The name of the connection property.
ShortDescription String A brief description.
Type String The data type of the connection property.
Default String The default value if one is not explicitly set.
Values String A comma-separated list of possible values. A validation error is thrown if another value is specified.
Value String The value you set or a preconfigured default.
Required Boolean Whether the property is required to connect.
Category String The category of the connection property.
IsSessionProperty String Whether the property is a session property, used to save information about the current connection.
Sensitivity String The sensitivity level of the property. This informs whether the property is obfuscated in logging and authentication forms.
PropertyName String A camel-cased truncated form of the connection property name.
Ordinal Int32 The index of the parameter.
CatOrdinal Int32 The index of the parameter category.
Hierarchy String Shows dependent properties associated that need to be set alongside this one.
Visible Boolean Informs whether the property is visible in the connection UI.
ETC String Various miscellaneous information about the property.

sys_sqlinfo

Describes the SELECT query processing that the connector can offload to the data source.

Collaborative Query Processing

When working with data sources that do not support SQL-92, you can query the sys_sqlinfo view to determine the query capabilities of the underlying APIs, expressed in SQL syntax. The connector offloads as much of the SELECT statement processing as possible to the server and then processes the rest of the query in memory.

Discover the Data Source's SELECT Capabilities

Below is an example data set of SQL capabilities. The following result set indicates the SELECT functionality that the connector can offload to the data source or process client side. Your data source may support additional SQL syntax. Some aspects of SELECT functionality are returned in a comma-separated list if supported; otherwise, the column contains NO.

Name Description Possible Values
AGGREGATE_FUNCTIONS Supported aggregation functions. AVG, COUNT, MAX, MIN, SUM, DISTINCT
COUNT Whether COUNT function is supported. YES, NO
IDENTIFIER_QUOTE_OPEN_CHAR The opening character used to escape an identifier. [
IDENTIFIER_QUOTE_CLOSE_CHAR The closing character used to escape an identifier. ]
SUPPORTED_OPERATORS A list of supported SQL operators. =, >, <, >=, <=, <>, !=, LIKE, NOT LIKE, IN, NOT IN, IS NULL, IS NOT NULL, AND, OR
GROUP_BY Whether GROUP BY is supported, and, if so, the degree of support. NO, NO_RELATION, EQUALS_SELECT, SQL_GB_COLLATE
STRING_FUNCTIONS Supported string functions. LENGTH, CHAR, LOCATE, REPLACE, SUBSTRING, RTRIM, LTRIM, RIGHT, LEFT, UCASE, SPACE, SOUNDEX, LCASE, CONCAT, ASCII, REPEAT, OCTET, BIT, POSITION, INSERT, TRIM, UPPER, REGEXP, LOWER, DIFFERENCE, CHARACTER, SUBSTR, STR, REVERSE, PLAN, UUIDTOSTR, TRANSLATE, TRAILING, TO, STUFF, STRTOUUID, STRING, SPLIT, SORTKEY, SIMILAR, REPLICATE, PATINDEX, LPAD, LEN, LEADING, KEY, INSTR, INSERTSTR, HTML, GRAPHICAL, CONVERT, COLLATION, CHARINDEX, BYTE
NUMERIC_FUNCTIONS Supported numeric functions. ABS, ACOS, ASIN, ATAN, ATAN2, CEILING, COS, COT, EXP, FLOOR, LOG, MOD, SIGN, SIN, SQRT, TAN, PI, RAND, DEGREES, LOG10, POWER, RADIANS, ROUND, TRUNCATE
TIMEDATE_FUNCTIONS Supported date/time functions. NOW, CURDATE, DAYOFMONTH, DAYOFWEEK, DAYOFYEAR, MONTH, QUARTER, WEEK, YEAR, CURTIME, HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND, TIMESTAMPADD, TIMESTAMPDIFF, DAYNAME, MONTHNAME, CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIME, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, EXTRACT
REPLICATION_SKIP_TABLES Indicates tables skipped during replication.
REPLICATION_TIMECHECK_COLUMNS A string array containing a list of columns which will be used to check for (in the given order) to use as a modified column during replication.
IDENTIFIER_PATTERN String value indicating what string is valid for an identifier.
SUPPORT_TRANSACTION Indicates if the provider supports transactions such as commit and rollback. YES, NO
DIALECT Indicates the SQL dialect to use.
KEY_PROPERTIES Indicates the properties which identify the uniform database.
SUPPORTS_MULTIPLE_SCHEMAS Indicates if multiple schemas may exist for the provider. YES, NO
SUPPORTS_MULTIPLE_CATALOGS Indicates if multiple catalogs may exist for the provider. YES, NO
DATASYNCVERSION The Data Sync version needed to access this driver. Standard, Starter, Professional, Enterprise
DATASYNCCATEGORY The Data Sync category of this driver. Source, Destination, Cloud Destination
SUPPORTSENHANCEDSQL Whether enhanced SQL functionality beyond what is offered by the API is supported. TRUE, FALSE
SUPPORTS_BATCH_OPERATIONS Whether batch operations are supported. YES, NO
SQL_CAP All supported SQL capabilities for this driver. SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, TRANSACTIONS, ORDERBY, OAUTH, ASSIGNEDID, LIMIT, LIKE, BULKINSERT, COUNT, BULKDELETE, BULKUPDATE, GROUPBY, HAVING, AGGS, OFFSET, REPLICATE, COUNTDISTINCT, JOINS, DROP, CREATE, DISTINCT, INNERJOINS, SUBQUERIES, ALTER, MULTIPLESCHEMAS, GROUPBYNORELATION, OUTERJOINS, UNIONALL, UNION, UPSERT, GETDELETED, CROSSJOINS, GROUPBYCOLLATE, MULTIPLECATS, FULLOUTERJOIN, MERGE, JSONEXTRACT, BULKUPSERT, SUM, SUBQUERIESFULL, MIN, MAX, JOINSFULL, XMLEXTRACT, AVG, MULTISTATEMENTS, FOREIGNKEYS, CASE, LEFTJOINS, COMMAJOINS, WITH, LITERALS, RENAME, NESTEDTABLES, EXECUTE, BATCH, BASIC, INDEX
PREFERRED_CACHE_OPTIONS A string value specifies the preferred cacheOptions.
ENABLE_EF_ADVANCED_QUERY Indicates if the driver directly supports advanced queries coming from Entity Framework. If not, queries will be handled client side. YES, NO
PSEUDO_COLUMNS A string array indicating the available pseudo columns.
MERGE_ALWAYS If the value is true, The Merge Mode is forcibly executed in Data Sync. TRUE, FALSE
REPLICATION_MIN_DATE_QUERY A select query to return the replicate start datetime.
REPLICATION_MIN_FUNCTION Allows a provider to specify the formula name to use for executing a server side min.
REPLICATION_START_DATE Allows a provider to specify a replicate startdate.
REPLICATION_MAX_DATE_QUERY A select query to return the replicate end datetime.
REPLICATION_MAX_FUNCTION Allows a provider to specify the formula name to use for executing a server side max.
IGNORE_INTERVALS_ON_INITIAL_REPLICATE A list of tables which will skip dividing the replicate into chunks on the initial replicate.
CHECKCACHE_USE_PARENTID Indicates whether the CheckCache statement should be done against the parent key column. TRUE, FALSE
CREATE_SCHEMA_PROCEDURES Indicates stored procedures that can be used for generating schema files.

The following query retrieves the operators that can be used in the WHERE clause:

SELECT * FROM sys_sqlinfo WHERE Name='SUPPORTED_OPERATORS'

Note that individual tables may have different limitations or requirements on the WHERE clause; refer to the NoSQL Database section for more information.

Columns
Name Type Description
NAME String A component of SQL syntax, or a capability that can be processed on the server.
VALUE String Detail on the supported SQL or SQL syntax.

sys_identity

Returns information about attempted modifications.

The following query retrieves the Ids of the modified rows in a batch operation:

SELECT * FROM sys_identity
Columns
Name Type Description
Id String The database-generated ID returned from a data modification operation.
Batch String An identifier for the batch. 1 for a single operation.
Operation String The result of the operation in the batch: INSERTED, UPDATED, or DELETED.
Message String SUCCESS or an error message if the update in the batch failed.

Important Notes

Configuration Files and Their Paths

  • All references to adding configuration files and their paths refer to files and locations on the Harmony Agent where the connector is installed. These paths are to be adjusted as appropriate depending on the agent and the operating system. If multiple agents are used in an agent group, identical files will be required on each agent.

Advanced Features

This section details a selection of advanced features of the Cassandra connector.

User Defined Views

The connector allows you to define virtual tables, called user defined views, whose contents are decided by a pre-configured query. These views are useful when you cannot directly control queries being issued to the drivers. See User Defined Views for an overview of creating and configuring custom views.

SSL Configuration

Use SSL Configuration to adjust how connector handles TLS/SSL certificate negotiations. You can choose from various certificate formats; see the SSLServerCert property under "Connection String Options" for more information.

Proxy

To configure the connector using Private Agent proxy settings, select the Use Proxy Settings checkbox on the connection configuration screen.

User Defined Views

The Jitterbit Connector for Cassandra allows you to define a virtual table whose contents are decided by a pre-configured query. These are called User Defined Views, which are useful in situations where you cannot directly control the query being issued to the driver, e.g. when using the driver from Jitterbit. The User Defined Views can be used to define predicates that are always applied. If you specify additional predicates in the query to the view, they are combined with the query already defined as part of the view.

There are two ways to create user defined views:

  • Create a JSON-formatted configuration file defining the views you want.
  • DDL statements.

Define Views Using a Configuration File

User Defined Views are defined in a JSON-formatted configuration file called UserDefinedViews.json. The connector automatically detects the views specified in this file.

You can also have multiple view definitions and control them using the UserDefinedViews connection property. When you use this property, only the specified views are seen by the connector.

This User Defined View configuration file is formatted as follows:

  • Each root element defines the name of a view.
  • Each root element contains a child element, called query, which contains the custom SQL query for the view.

For example:

{
    "MyView": {
        "query": "SELECT * FROM \"\".\"Sample\".Products WHERE MyColumn = 'value'"
    },
    "MyView2": {
        "query": "SELECT * FROM MyTable WHERE Id IN (1,2,3)"
    }
}

Use the UserDefinedViews connection property to specify the location of your JSON configuration file. For example:

"UserDefinedViews", "C:\Users\yourusername\Desktop\tmp\UserDefinedViews.json"

Schema for User Defined Views

User Defined Views are exposed in the UserViews schema by default. This is done to avoid the view's name clashing with an actual entity in the data model. You can change the name of the schema used for UserViews by setting the UserViewsSchemaName property.

Work with User Defined Views

For example, a SQL statement with a User Defined View called UserViews.RCustomers only lists customers in Raleigh:

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE City = 'Raleigh';

An example of a query to the driver:

SELECT * FROM UserViews.RCustomers WHERE Status = 'Active';

Resulting in the effective query to the source:

SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE City = 'Raleigh' AND Status = 'Active';

That is a very simple example of a query to a User Defined View that is effectively a combination of the view query and the view definition. It is possible to compose these queries in much more complex patterns. All SQL operations are allowed in both queries and are combined when appropriate.

SSL Configuration

Customize the SSL Configuration

By default, the connector attempts to negotiate SSL/TLS by checking the server's certificate against the system's trusted certificate store.

To specify another certificate, see the SSLServerCert property for the available formats to do so.

Client SSL Certificates

The Cassandra connector also supports setting client certificates. Set the following to connect using a client certificate.

  • SSLClientCert: The name of the certificate store for the client certificate.
  • SSLClientCertType: The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.
  • SSLClientCertPassword: The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.
  • SSLClientCertSubject: The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Advanced Configurations Properties

The advanced configurations properties are the various options that can be used to establish a connection. This section provides a complete list of the options you can configure. Click the links for further details.

Authentication

Property Description
AuthScheme The scheme used for authentication. Accepted entries are Basic, DSE, Kerberos, and LDAP.
Server The host name or IP address of the server hosting the Cassandra database.
Port The port for the Cassandra database.
LDAPServer The host name or IP address of the LDAP server.
User The Cassandra user account used to authenticate.
Password The password used to authenticate the user.
LDAPPort The port for the LDAP server.
Database The name of the Cassandra keyspace.
DefaultLDAPUser The default LDAP user used to connect to and communicate with the server, it must be set if the LDAP server do not allow anonymous bind.
LDAPPassword The password of the default LDAP user. It must be set if the LDAP server do not allow anonymous bind.
SearchBase The search base for your LDAPServer, used to look up users.
SearchFilter The search filter for looking up usernames in LDAP. The default setting is (uid=), When using Active Directory set the filter to (sAMAccountName=).
UseSSL This field sets whether SSL is enabled.

Kerberos

Property Description
KerberosKDC The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) service used to authenticate the user.
KerberosRealm The Kerberos Realm used to authenticate the user with.
KerberosSPN The service principal name (SPN) for the Kerberos Domain Controller.
KerberosKeytabFile The Keytab file containing your pairs of Kerberos principals and encrypted keys.
KerberosServiceRealm The Kerberos realm of the service.
KerberosServiceKDC The Kerberos KDC of the service.
KerberosTicketCache The full file path to an MIT Kerberos credential cache file.

SSL

Property Description
SSLClientCert The TLS/SSL client certificate store for SSL Client Authentication (2-way SSL).
SSLClientCertType The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertPassword The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertSubject The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLServerCert The certificate to be accepted from the server when connecting using TLS/SSL.

SSH

Property Description
SSHAuthMode The authentication method to be used to log on to an SFTP server.
SSHClientCert A certificate to be used for authenticating the user.
SSHClientCertPassword The password of the SSHClientCert certificate if it has one.
SSHClientCertSubject The subject of the SSH client certificate.
SSHClientCertType The type of SSHClientCert certificate.
SSHServer The SSH server.
SSHPort The SSH port.
SSHUser The SSH user.
SSHPassword The SSH password.
SSHServerFingerprint The SSH server fingerprint.
UseSSH Whether to tunnel the Cassandra connection over SSH. Use SSH.

Schema

Property Description
Location A path to the directory that contains the schema files defining tables, views, and stored procedures.
BrowsableSchemas This property restricts the schemas reported to a subset of the available schemas. For example, BrowsableSchemas=SchemaA, SchemaB, SchemaC.
Tables This property restricts the tables reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Tables=TableA, TableB, TableC.
Views Restricts the views reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Views=ViewA, ViewB, ViewC.

Miscellaneous

Property Description
AggregationsSupported Whether or not to support aggregations in the Cassandra server. Note that in queries to the provider, you must use single quotes to define strings.
AllowFiltering When true, slow-performing queries are processed on the server.
CaseSensitivity Enable case sensitivity to the CQL sending to the server, if set to True, the identifiers in the CQL will be enclosed in double quotation marks.
ConsistencyLevel The consistency level determines how many of the replicas of the data you are interacting with need to respond for the query to be considered a success.
FlattenArrays By default, nested arrays are returned as strings of JSON. The FlattenArrays property can be used to flatten the elements of nested arrays into columns of their own. Set FlattenArrays to the number of elements you want to return from nested arrays.
FlattenObjects Set FlattenObjects to true to flatten object properties into columns of their own. Otherwise, objects nested in arrays are returned as strings of JSON.
MaxRows Limits the number of rows returned rows when no aggregation or group by is used in the query. This helps avoid performance issues at design time.
NullToUnset Use unset instead of NULL in CQL query when performing INSERT operations.
Other These hidden properties are used only in specific use cases.
Pagesize The maximum number of results to return per page from Cassandra.
PseudoColumns This property indicates whether or not to include pseudo columns as columns to the table.
QueryPassthrough This option passes the query to the Cassandra server as is.
RowScanDepth The maximum number of rows to scan to look for the columns available in a table.
Timeout The value in seconds until the timeout error is thrown, canceling the operation.
UseJsonFormat Whether to submit and return the JSON encoding for CQL data types.
VarintToString Map Cassandra VARINT to String value.

Authentication

This section provides a complete list of authentication properties you can configure.

Property Description
AuthScheme The scheme used for authentication. Accepted entries are Basic, DSE, Kerberos, and LDAP.
Server The host name or IP address of the server hosting the Cassandra database.
Port The port for the Cassandra database.
LDAPServer The host name or IP address of the LDAP server.
User The Cassandra user account used to authenticate.
Password The password used to authenticate the user.
LDAPPort The port for the LDAP server.
Database The name of the Cassandra keyspace.
DefaultLDAPUser The default LDAP user used to connect to and communicate with the server, it must be set if the LDAP server do not allow anonymous bind.
LDAPPassword The password of the default LDAP user. It must be set if the LDAP server do not allow anonymous bind.
SearchBase The search base for your LDAPServer, used to look up users.
SearchFilter The search filter for looking up usernames in LDAP. The default setting is (uid=), When using Active Directory set the filter to (sAMAccountName=).
UseSSL This field sets whether SSL is enabled.

AuthScheme

The scheme used for authentication. Accepted entries are Basic, DSE, Kerberos, and LDAP.

Possible Values

Basic, DSE, Kerberos, LDAP

Data Type

string

Default Value

Basic

Remarks

Set this property to authenticate to open-source or DataStax Enterprise (DSE) Cassandra instances.

Together with Password and User, this field is used to authenticate against the server. Basic is the default option. Use the following options to select your authentication scheme:

  • Basic: Set this to authenticate with login credentials and Cassandra's built-in authentication.
  • DSE: Set this to authenticate with login credentials and the DSE Unified Authenticator.
  • Kerberos: Set this to use Kerberos to authenticate.
  • LDAP: Set this to use LDAP to authenticate.

See the Getting Started section for guides to using each authentication method.

Server

The host name or IP address of the server hosting the Cassandra database.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The host name or IP address of the server hosting the Cassandra database. To connect to a distributed system, you can set Server to a comma-separated list of servers and ports, separated by colons. You will also need to set ConsistencyLevel.

Note that you must specify all of the servers required by your selected consistency level.

Port

The port for the Cassandra database.

Data Type

string

Default Value

9042

Remarks

The port for the Cassandra database.

LDAPServer

The host name or IP address of the LDAP server.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The host name or IP address of the LDAP server.

User

The Cassandra user account used to authenticate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Together with Password, this field is used to authenticate against the Cassandra server.

Password

The password used to authenticate the user.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The User and Password are together used to authenticate with the server.

LDAPPort

The port for the LDAP server.

Data Type

string

Default Value

389

Remarks

The port for the LDAP server.

Database

The name of the Cassandra keyspace.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The name of the Cassandra keyspace containing the tables.

DefaultLDAPUser

The default LDAP user used to connect to and communicate with the server, it must be set if the LDAP server do not allow anonymous bind.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Specify the default LDAP user in case the LDAP server do not allow anonymous login.

LDAPPassword

The password of the default LDAP user. It must be set if the LDAP server do not allow anonymous bind.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Specify the password of the default LDAP user.

SearchBase

The search base for your LDAPServer, used to look up users.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The search base for your LDAPServer, used to look up users.

SearchFilter

The search filter for looking up usernames in LDAP. The default setting is (uid=), When using Active Directory set the filter to (sAMAccountName=).

Data Type

string

Default Value

uid=

Remarks

The search filter for looking up usernames in LDAP. The default setting is (uid=).

UseSSL

This field sets whether SSL is enabled.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

This field sets whether the connector will attempt to negotiate TLS/SSL connections to the server. By default, the connector checks the server's certificate against the system's trusted certificate store. To specify another certificate, set SSLServerCert.

Kerberos

This section provides a complete list of Kerberos properties you can configure.

Property Description
KerberosKDC The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) service used to authenticate the user.
KerberosRealm The Kerberos Realm used to authenticate the user with.
KerberosSPN The service principal name (SPN) for the Kerberos Domain Controller.
KerberosKeytabFile The Keytab file containing your pairs of Kerberos principals and encrypted keys.
KerberosServiceRealm The Kerberos realm of the service.
KerberosServiceKDC The Kerberos KDC of the service.
KerberosTicketCache The full file path to an MIT Kerberos credential cache file.

KerberosKDC

The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) service used to authenticate the user.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The Kerberos properties are used when using SPNEGO or Windows Authentication. The connector will request session tickets and temporary session keys from the Kerberos KDC service. The Kerberos KDC service is conventionally colocated with the domain controller.

If Kerberos KDC is not specified, the connector will attempt to detect these properties automatically from the following locations:

  • KRB5 Config File (krb5.ini/krb5.conf): If the KRB5_CONFIG environment variable is set and the file exists, the connector will obtain the KDC from the specified file. Otherwise it will attempt to read from the default MIT location based on the OS: C:\ProgramData\MIT\Kerberos5\krb5.ini (Windows) or /etc/krb5.conf (Linux)
  • Java System Properties: Using the system properties java.security.krb5.realm and java.security.krb5.kdc.
  • Domain Name and Host: The connector will infer the Kerberos Realm and Kerberos KDC from the configured domain name and host as a last resort.

Note

Windows authentication is supported in JRE 1.6 and above only.

KerberosRealm

The Kerberos Realm used to authenticate the user with.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The Kerberos properties are used when using SPNEGO or Windows Authentication. The Kerberos Realm is used to authenticate the user with the Kerberos Key Distribution Service (KDC). The Kerberos Realm can be configured by an administrator to be any string, but conventionally it is based on the domain name.

If Kerberos Realm is not specified the connector will attempt to detect these properties automatically from the following locations:

  • KRB5 Config File (krb5.ini/krb5.conf): If the KRB5_CONFIG environment variable is set and the file exists, the connector will obtain the default realm from the specified file. Otherwise it will attempt to read from the default MIT location based on the OS: C:\ProgramData\MIT\Kerberos5\krb5.ini (Windows) or /etc/krb5.conf (Linux)
  • Java System Properties: Using the system properties java.security.krb5.realm and java.security.krb5.kdc.
  • Domain Name and Host: The connector will infer the Kerberos Realm and Kerberos KDC from the user-configured domain name and host as a last resort. This might work in some Windows environments.

Note

Kerberos-based authentication is supported in JRE 1.6 and above only.

KerberosSPN

The service principal name (SPN) for the Kerberos Domain Controller.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

If the SPN on the Kerberos Domain Controller is not the same as the URL that you are authenticating to, use this property to set the SPN.

KerberosKeytabFile

The Keytab file containing your pairs of Kerberos principals and encrypted keys.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The Keytab file containing your pairs of Kerberos principals and encrypted keys.

KerberosServiceRealm

The Kerberos realm of the service.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The KerberosServiceRealm is the specify the service Kerberos realm when using cross-realm Kerberos authentication.

In most cases, a single realm and KDC machine are used to perform the Kerberos authentication and this property is not required.

This property is available for complex setups where a different realm and KDC machine are used to obtain an authentication ticket (AS request) and a service ticket (TGS request).

KerberosServiceKDC

The Kerberos KDC of the service.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The KerberosServiceKDC is used to specify the service Kerberos KDC when using cross-realm Kerberos authentication.

In most cases, a single realm and KDC machine are used to perform the Kerberos authentication and this property is not required.

This property is available for complex setups where a different realm and KDC machine are used to obtain an authentication ticket (AS request) and a service ticket (TGS request).

KerberosTicketCache

The full file path to an MIT Kerberos credential cache file.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

This property can be set if you wish to use a credential cache file that was created using the MIT Kerberos Ticket Manager or kinit command.

SSL

This section provides a complete list of SSL properties you can configure.

Property Description
SSLClientCert The TLS/SSL client certificate store for SSL Client Authentication (2-way SSL).
SSLClientCertType The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertPassword The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertSubject The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLServerCert The certificate to be accepted from the server when connecting using TLS/SSL.

SSLClientCert

The TLS/SSL client certificate store for SSL Client Authentication (2-way SSL).

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The name of the certificate store for the client certificate.

The SSLClientCertType field specifies the type of the certificate store specified by SSLClientCert. If the store is password protected, specify the password in SSLClientCertPassword.

SSLClientCert is used in conjunction with the SSLClientCertSubject field in order to specify client certificates. If SSLClientCert has a value, and SSLClientCertSubject is set, a search for a certificate is initiated. See SSLClientCertSubject for more information.

Designations of certificate stores are platform-dependent.

The following are designations of the most common User and Machine certificate stores in Windows:

Property Description
MY A certificate store holding personal certificates with their associated private keys.
CA Certifying authority certificates.
ROOT Root certificates.
SPC Software publisher certificates.

In Java, the certificate store normally is a file containing certificates and optional private keys.

When the certificate store type is PFXFile, this property must be set to the name of the file. When the type is PFXBlob, the property must be set to the binary contents of a PFX file (for example, PKCS12 certificate store).

SSLClientCertType

The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Possible Values

USER, MACHINE, PFXFILE, PFXBLOB, JKSFILE, JKSBLOB, PEMKEY_FILE, PEMKEY_BLOB, PUBLIC_KEY_FILE, PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, P7BFILE, PPKFILE, XMLFILE, XMLBLOB

Data Type

string

Default Value

USER

Remarks

This property can take one of the following values:

Property Description
USER - default For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a certificate store owned by the current user. Note that this store type is not available in Java.
MACHINE For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a machine store. Note that this store type is not available in Java.
PFXFILE The certificate store is the name of a PFX (PKCS12) file containing certificates.
PFXBLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in PFX (PKCS12) format.
JKSFILE The certificate store is the name of a Java key store (JKS) file containing certificates. Note that this store type is only available in Java.
JKSBLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in JKS format. Note that this store type is only available in Java.
PEMKEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a PEM-encoded file that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PEMKEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base64-encoded) that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains an SSH-style public key.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) that contains an SSH-style public key.
P7BFILE The certificate store is the name of a PKCS7 file containing certificates.
PPKFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PuTTY Private Key (PPK).
XMLFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a certificate in XML format.
XMLBLOB The certificate store is a string that contains a certificate in XML format.

SSLClientCertPassword

The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

If the certificate store is of a type that requires a password, this property is used to specify that password to open the certificate store.

SSLClientCertSubject

The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

*

Remarks

When loading a certificate the subject is used to locate the certificate in the store.

If an exact match is not found, the store is searched for subjects containing the value of the property. If a match is still not found, the property is set to an empty string, and no certificate is selected.

The special value "*" picks the first certificate in the certificate store.

The certificate subject is a comma separated list of distinguished name fields and values. For example, "CN=www.server.com, OU=test, C=US, E=support@company.com". The common fields and their meanings are shown below.

Field Meaning
CN Common Name. This is commonly a host name like www.server.com.
O Organization
OU Organizational Unit
L Locality
S State
C Country
E Email Address

If a field value contains a comma, it must be quoted.

SSLServerCert

The certificate to be accepted from the server when connecting using TLS/SSL.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

If using a TLS/SSL connection, this property can be used to specify the TLS/SSL certificate to be accepted from the server. Any other certificate that is not trusted by the machine is rejected.

This property can take the following forms:

Description Example
A full PEM Certificate (example shortened for brevity) -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- MIIChTCCAe4CAQAwDQYJKoZIhv......Qw== -----END CERTIFICATE-----
A path to a local file containing the certificate C:\cert.cer
The public key (example shortened for brevity) -----BEGIN RSA PUBLIC KEY----- MIGfMA0GCSq......AQAB -----END RSA PUBLIC KEY-----
The MD5 Thumbprint (hex values can also be either space or colon separated) ecadbdda5a1529c58a1e9e09828d70e4
The SHA1 Thumbprint (hex values can also be either space or colon separated) 34a929226ae0819f2ec14b4a3d904f801cbb150d

If not specified, any certificate trusted by the machine is accepted.

Certificates are validated as trusted by the machine based on the System's trust store. The trust store used is the 'javax.net.ssl.trustStore' value specified for the system. If no value is specified for this property, Java's default trust store is used (for example, JAVA_HOME\lib\security\cacerts).

Use '*' to signify to accept all certificates. Note that this is not recommended due to security concerns.

SSH

This section provides a complete list of SSH properties you can configure.

Property Description
SSHAuthMode The authentication method to be used to log on to an SFTP server.
SSHClientCert A certificate to be used for authenticating the user.
SSHClientCertPassword The password of the SSHClientCert certificate if it has one.
SSHClientCertSubject The subject of the SSH client certificate.
SSHClientCertType The type of SSHClientCert certificate.
SSHServer The SSH server.
SSHPort The SSH port.
SSHUser The SSH user.
SSHPassword The SSH password.
SSHServerFingerprint The SSH server fingerprint.
UseSSH Whether to tunnel the Cassandra connection over SSH. Use SSH.

SSHAuthMode

The authentication method to be used to log on to an SFTP server.

Possible Values

None, Password, Public_Key

Data Type

string

Default Value

Password

Remarks
  • None: No authentication will be performed. The current User value is ignored, and the connection will be logged in as anonymous.
  • Password: The connector will use the values of User and Password to authenticate the user.
  • Public_Key: The connector will use the values of User and SSHClientCert to authenticate the user. SSHClientCert must have a private key available for this authentication method to succeed.

SSHClientCert

A certificate to be used for authenticating the user.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

In order to use public key authentication, SSHClientCert must contain a certificate with a valid private key. The certificate's public key value is sent to the server along with a signature produced using the private key. The server will first check to see if the public key values match what is known for the user and then will attempt to use those values to verify the signature.

The SSHClientCertType field specifies the type of the certificate store specified by SSHClientCert. If the store is password protected, specify the password in SSHClientCertPassword.

SSHClientCert is used in conjunction with the SSHClientCertSubject

field in order to specify client certificates. If SSHClientCert has a value, and SSHClientCertSubject is set, a search for a certificate is initiated. Please refer to the SSHClientCertSubject field for details.

Designations of certificate stores are platform-dependent.

The following are designations of the most common User and Machine certificate stores in Windows:

Property Description
MY A certificate store holding personal certificates with their associated private keys.
CA Certifying authority certificates.
ROOT Root certificates.
SPC Software publisher certificates.

In Java, the certificate store normally is a file containing certificates and optional private keys.

When the certificate store type is PFXFile, this property must be set to the name of the file. When the type is PFXBlob, the property must be set to the binary contents of a PFX file (i.e. PKCS12 certificate store).

SSHClientCertPassword

The password of the SSHClientCert certificate if it has one.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

This property is only used when authenticating to SFTP servers with SSHAuthMode set to PublicKey and SSHClientCert set to a private key.

SSHClientCertSubject

The subject of the SSH client certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

*

Remarks

When loading a certificate the subject is used to locate the certificate in the store.

If an exact match is not found, the store is searched for subjects containing the value of the property.

If a match is still not found, the property is set to an empty string, and no certificate is selected.

The special value "*" picks the first certificate in the certificate store.

The certificate subject is a comma separated list of distinguished name fields and values. For instance "CN=www.server.com, OU=test, C=US, E=support@jitterbit.com". Common fields and their meanings are displayed below.

Field Meaning
CN Common Name. This is commonly a host name like www.server.com.
O Organization
OU Organizational Unit
L Locality
S State
C Country
E Email Address

If a field value contains a comma it must be quoted.

SSHClientCertType

The type of SSHClientCert certificate.

Possible Values

USER, MACHINE, PFXFILE, PFXBLOB, JKSFILE, JKSBLOB, PEMKEY_FILE, PEMKEY_BLOB, PUBLIC_KEY_FILE, PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, P7BFILE, P7BBLOB, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE, PPKFILE, PPKBLOB, XMLFILE, XMLBLOB

Data Type

string

Default Value

PUBLIC_KEY_FILE

Remarks

The type of SSHClientCert certificate. This property can take one of the following values:

Property Description
USER For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a certificate store owned by the current user. Note: this store type is not available in Java.
MACHINE For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a machine store. Note: this store type is not available in Java.
PFXFILE The certificate store is the name of a PFX (PKCS12) file containing certificates.
PFXBLOB The certificate store is a string (binary or base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in PFX (PKCS12) format.
JKSFILE The certificate store is the name of a Java Key Store (JKS) file containing certificates. Note: this store type is only available in Java.
JKSBLOB The certificate store is a string (binary or base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in Java Key Store (JKS) format. Note: this store type is only available in Java.
PEMKEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a PEM-encoded file that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PEMKEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (binary or base-64-encoded) that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (binary or base-64-encoded) that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (binary or base-64-encoded) that contains an SSH-style public key.
P7BFILE The certificate store is the name of a PKCS7 file containing certificates.
P7BBLOB The certificate store is a string (binary) representing a certificate store in PKCS7 format.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains an SSH-style public key.
PPKFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PPK (PuTTY Private Key).
PPKBLOB The certificate store is a string (binary) that contains a PPK (PuTTY Private Key).
XMLFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a certificate in XML format.
XMLBLOB The certificate store is a string that contains a certificate in XML format.

SSHServer

The SSH server.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The SSH server.

SSHPort

The SSH port.

Data Type

string

Default Value

22

Remarks

The SSH port.

SSHUser

The SSH user.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The SSH user.

SSHPassword

The SSH password.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The SSH password.

SSHServerFingerprint

The SSH server fingerprint.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The SSH server fingerprint.

UseSSH

Whether to tunnel the Cassandra connection over SSH. Use SSH.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

By default the connector will attempt to connect directly to Cassandra. When this option is enabled, the connector will instead establish an SSH connection with the SSHServer and tunnel the connection to Cassandra through it.

Schema

This section provides a complete list of schema properties you can configure.

Property Description
Location A path to the directory that contains the schema files defining tables, views, and stored procedures.
BrowsableSchemas This property restricts the schemas reported to a subset of the available schemas. For example, BrowsableSchemas=SchemaA, SchemaB, SchemaC.
Tables This property restricts the tables reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Tables=TableA, TableB, TableC.
Views Restricts the views reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Views=ViewA, ViewB, ViewC.

Location

A path to the directory that contains the schema files defining tables, views, and stored procedures.

Data Type

string

Default Value

%APPDATA%\Cassandra Data Provider\Schema

Remarks

The path to a directory which contains the schema files for the connector (.rsd files for tables and views, .rsb files for stored procedures). The folder location can be a relative path from the location of the executable. The Location property is only needed if you want to customize definitions (for example, change a column name, ignore a column, and so on) or extend the data model with new tables, views, or stored procedures.

If left unspecified, the default location is "%APPDATA%\Cassandra Data Provider\Schema" with %APPDATA% being set to the user's configuration directory:

Platform %APPDATA%
Windows The value of the APPDATA environment variable
Mac ~/Library/Application Support
Linux ~/.config

BrowsableSchemas

This property restricts the schemas reported to a subset of the available schemas. For example, BrowsableSchemas=SchemaA,SchemaB,SchemaC.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Listing the schemas from databases can be expensive. Providing a list of schemas in the connection string improves the performance.

Tables

This property restricts the tables reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Tables=TableA,TableB,TableC.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Listing the tables from some databases can be expensive. Providing a list of tables in the connection string improves the performance of the connector.

This property can also be used as an alternative to automatically listing views if you already know which ones you want to work with and there would otherwise be too many to work with.

Specify the tables you want in a comma-separated list. Each table should be a valid SQL identifier with any special characters escaped using square brackets, double-quotes or backticks. For example, Tables=TableA,[TableB/WithSlash],WithCatalog.WithSchema.`TableC With Space`.

Note that when connecting to a data source with multiple schemas or catalogs, you will need to provide the fully qualified name of the table in this property, as in the last example here, to avoid ambiguity between tables that exist in multiple catalogs or schemas.

Views

Restricts the views reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Views=ViewA,ViewB,ViewC.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Listing the views from some databases can be expensive. Providing a list of views in the connection string improves the performance of the connector.

This property can also be used as an alternative to automatically listing views if you already know which ones you want to work with and there would otherwise be too many to work with.

Specify the views you want in a comma-separated list. Each view should be a valid SQL identifier with any special characters escaped using square brackets, double-quotes or backticks. For example, Views=ViewA,[ViewB/WithSlash],WithCatalog.WithSchema.`ViewC With Space`.

Note that when connecting to a data source with multiple schemas or catalogs, you will need to provide the fully qualified name of the table in this property, as in the last example here, to avoid ambiguity between tables that exist in multiple catalogs or schemas.

Miscellaneous

This section provides a complete list of miscellaneous properties you can configure.

Property Description
AggregationsSupported Whether or not to support aggregations in the Cassandra server. Note that in queries to the provider, you must use single quotes to define strings.
AllowFiltering When true, slow-performing queries are processed on the server.
CaseSensitivity Enable case sensitivity to the CQL sending to the server, if set to True, the identifiers in the CQL will be enclosed in double quotation marks.
ConsistencyLevel The consistency level determines how many of the replicas of the data you are interacting with need to respond for the query to be considered a success.
FlattenArrays By default, nested arrays are returned as strings of JSON. The FlattenArrays property can be used to flatten the elements of nested arrays into columns of their own. Set FlattenArrays to the number of elements you want to return from nested arrays.
FlattenObjects Set FlattenObjects to true to flatten object properties into columns of their own. Otherwise, objects nested in arrays are returned as strings of JSON.
MaxRows Limits the number of rows returned rows when no aggregation or group by is used in the query. This helps avoid performance issues at design time.
NullToUnset Use unset instead of NULL in CQL query when performing INSERT operations.
Other These hidden properties are used only in specific use cases.
Pagesize The maximum number of results to return per page from Cassandra.
PseudoColumns This property indicates whether or not to include pseudo columns as columns to the table.
QueryPassthrough This option passes the query to the Cassandra server as is.
RowScanDepth The maximum number of rows to scan to look for the columns available in a table.
Timeout The value in seconds until the timeout error is thrown, canceling the operation.
UseJsonFormat Whether to submit and return the JSON encoding for CQL data types.
VarintToString Map Cassandra VARINT to String value.

AggregationsSupported

Whether or not to support aggregations in the Cassandra server. Note that in queries to the provider, you must use single quotes to define strings.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

true

Remarks

AllowFiltering

When true, slow-performing queries are processed on the server.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

Cassandra by default does not allow filtering for queries that it predicts will have performance problems. These queries include filtering on a column that is not the primary key.

You can override the default behavior and rely on the server to process these queries by setting AllowFiltering to true.

CaseSensitivity

Enable case sensitivity to the CQL sending to the server, if set to True, the identifiers in the CQL will be enclosed in double quotation marks.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

true

Remarks

By default, SQL is case-insensitive. However, Cassandra supports case-sensitive table and column names. Setting this property to True will enable you to retrieve tables and columns based on their case-sensitive names.

ConsistencyLevel

The consistency level determines how many of the replicas of the data you are interacting with need to respond for the query to be considered a success.

Possible Values

ONE, TWO, THREE, QUORUM, ALL, LOCAL_QUORUM, EACH_QUORUM, SERIAL, LOCAL_SERIAL, LOCAL_ONE, ANY

Data Type

string

Default Value

ONE

Remarks

The consistency level determines how many of the replicas of the data you are interacting with need to respond for the query to be considered a success. You need to specify the appropriate replicas in the Server property.

Below are the possible values:

  • ANY: At least one replica must return success in a write operation. This property guarantees that a write never fails; this consistency level delivers the lowest consistency and highest availability.
  • ALL: All replicas must respond. This property provides the highest consistency and the lowest availability.
  • ONE: At least one replica must respond. This is the default and suitable for most users, who do not typically require high consistency.
  • TWO: At least two replicas must respond.
  • THREE: At least three replicas must respond.
  • QUORUM: A quorum of nodes must respond. The QUORUM properties provide high consistency with some failure tolerance.
  • EACH_QUORUM: A quorum of nodes must respond where a quorum is calculated for each data center. This setting maintains consistency in each data center.
  • SERIAL: A quorum of replicas performs a consensus algorithm to allow lightweight transactions.
  • LOCAL_ONE: At least one replica in the local data center must respond.
  • LOCAL_SERIAL: The consensus algorithm is calculated for the local data center.
  • LOCAL_QUORUM: A quorum of nodes must respond where the quorum is calculated for the local data center.

FlattenArrays

By default, nested arrays are returned as strings of JSON. The FlattenArrays property can be used to flatten the elements of nested arrays into columns of their own. Set FlattenArrays to the number of elements you want to return from nested arrays.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

By default, nested arrays are returned as strings of JSON. The FlattenArrays property can be used to flatten the elements of nested arrays into columns of their own. This is only recommended for arrays that are expected to be short.

Set FlattenArrays to the number of elements you want to return from nested arrays. The specified elements are returned as columns. The zero-based index is concatenated to the column name. Other elements are ignored.

For example, you can return an arbitrary number of elements from an array of strings:

["FLOW-MATIC","LISP","COBOL"]

When FlattenArrays is set to 1, the preceding array is flattened into the following table:

Column Name Column Value
languages_0 FLOW-MATIC

FlattenObjects

Set FlattenObjects to true to flatten object properties into columns of their own. Otherwise, objects nested in arrays are returned as strings of JSON.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

Set FlattenObjects to true to flatten object properties into columns of their own. Otherwise, objects nested in arrays are returned as strings of JSON. The property name is concatenated onto the object name with an underscore to generate the column name.

For example, you can flatten the nested objects below at connection time:

[
     { "grade": "A", "score": 2 },
     { "grade": "A", "score": 6 },
     { "grade": "A", "score": 10 },
     { "grade": "A", "score": 9 },
     { "grade": "B", "score": 14 }
]

When FlattenObjects is set to true and FlattenArrays is set to 1, the preceding array is flattened into the following table:

Column Name Column Value
grades_0_grade A
grades_0_score 2

MaxRows

Limits the number of rows returned rows when no aggregation or group by is used in the query. This helps avoid performance issues at design time.

Data Type

int

Default Value

-1

Remarks

Limits the number of rows returned rows when no aggregation or group by is used in the query. This helps avoid performance issues at design time.

NullToUnset

Use unset instead of NULL in CQL query when performing INSERT operations.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

In Cassandra 2.2 and above, when executing an INSERT query, a parameter value can be set to unset. Cassandra does not consider unset field values which helps to avoid tombstones.

When NULL values are inserted, it is possible to reach the tombstone threshold limits which causes an exception to be thrown when querying the data. Setting this property to true and submitting unset values avoids these tombstones from being created.

Note: This option is only available on INSERT operations as Cassandra does not support changing existing values to unset.

Other

These hidden properties are used only in specific use cases.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The properties listed below are available for specific use cases. Normal driver use cases and functionality should not require these properties.

Specify multiple properties in a semicolon-separated list.

Integration and Formatting
Property Description
DefaultColumnSize Sets the default length of string fields when the data source does not provide column length in the metadata. The default value is 2000.
ConvertDateTimeToGMT Determines whether to convert date-time values to GMT, instead of the local time of the machine.
RecordToFile=filename Records the underlying socket data transfer to the specified file.

Pagesize

The maximum number of results to return per page from Cassandra.

Data Type

int

Default Value

5000

Remarks

The Pagesize property affects the maximum number of results to return per page from Cassandra. Setting a higher value may result in better performance at the cost of additional memory allocated per page consumed.

PseudoColumns

This property indicates whether or not to include pseudo columns as columns to the table.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

This setting is particularly helpful in Entity Framework, which does not allow you to set a value for a pseudo column unless it is a table column. The value of this connection setting is of the format "Table1=Column1, Table1=Column2, Table2=Column3". You can use the "*" character to include all tables and all columns; for example, "*=*".

QueryPassthrough

This option passes the query to the Cassandra server as is.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

When this is set, queries are passed through directly to Cassandra.

RowScanDepth

The maximum number of rows to scan to look for the columns available in a table.

Data Type

int

Default Value

100

Remarks

The columns in a table must be determined by scanning table rows. This value determines the maximum number of rows that will be scanned.

Setting a high value may decrease performance. Setting a low value may prevent the data type from being determined properly, especially when there is null data.

Timeout

The value in seconds until the timeout error is thrown, canceling the operation.

Data Type

int

Default Value

60

Remarks

If Timeout = 0, operations do not time out. The operations run until they complete successfully or until they encounter an error condition.

If Timeout expires and the operation is not yet complete, the connector throws an exception.

UseJsonFormat

Whether to submit and return the JSON encoding for CQL data types.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

true

Remarks

Cassandra 2.2 introduced a CQL extension that allows you to JSON-encode CQL data types. By default, you use the JSON syntax to manipulate data and SELECT statements return JSON through the connector. Set this property to false to use CQL literals to interact with Cassandra data.

The syntax for CQL literals has several differences from JSON. For example:

  • CQL strings are defined in single quotes, while JSON strings are defined in double quotes.
  • CQL sets, tuples, and lists are JSON-encoded as arrays.
  • User-defined types and CQL uuid types are JSON-encoded as objects.

Refer to the CQL documentation for more information on how to JSON-encode data types in your version of Cassandra. Below is an example SQL statement using JSON and CQL.

Format Syntax
CQL
INSERT INTO users (user_id, emails) VALUES(@user_id, @emails)
Parameters
user_id frodo
emails {'f@baggins.com', 'baggins@gmail.com'}
JSON
INSERT INTO users (user_id, emails) VALUES (@user_id, @emails)
Parameters
user_id frodo
emails ["f@baggins.com", "baggins@gmail.com"])

Note that in queries to the connector, you must use single quotes to define strings.

VarintToString

Map Cassandra VARINT to String value.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

true

Remarks

Map Cassandra VARINT to String value.