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Azure Synapse Analytics Connection Details

Introduction

Connector Version

This documentation is based on version 23.0.8895 of the connector.

Get Started

Azure Synapse Version Support

The connector enables connectivity to Azure Synapse through the TDS protocol.

Data is transferred to Azure Synapse via the upload of CSV data to Azure Blob, which is then copied to Azure Synapse.

Establish a Connection

Connect to Azure Synapse

In addition to providing authentication (see below), set the following properties to connect to a Azure Synapse database:

  • Server: The server running Azure. You can find this by logging into the Azure portal and navigating to Azure Synapse Analytics -> Select your database -> Overview -> Server name.
  • Database: The name of the database, as seen in the Azure portal on the Azure Synapse Analytics page.

Authenticate to Azure Synapse

Connect to Azure Synapse using the following properties:

  • User: The username provided for authentication with Azure.
  • Password: The password associated with the authenticating user.
Azure AD

Azure AD is Microsoft’s multi-tenant, cloud-based directory and identity management service. It is user-based authentication that requires that you set AuthScheme to AzureAD.

Authentication to Azure AD over a Web application always requires the creation of a custom OAuth application. For details, see Creating an Azure AD Application.

Desktop Applications

provides an embedded OAuth application that simplifies connection to Azure AD from a Desktop application.

You can also authenticate from a desktop application using a custom OAuth application. (For further information, see Creating an Azure AD Application.) To authenticate via Azure AD, set these parameters:

  • AuthScheme: AzureAD.
  • Custom applications only:
    • OAuthClientId: The client ID assigned when you registered your custom OAuth application.
    • OAuthClientSecret: The client secret assigned when you registered your custom OAuth application.
    • CallbackURL: The redirect URI you defined when you registered your custom OAuth application.

When you connect, the connector opens Azure Synapse's OAuth endpoint in your default browser. Log in and grant permissions to the application.

The connector completes the OAuth process, obtaining an access token from Azure Synapse and using it to request data. The OAuth values are saved in the path specified in OAuthSettingsLocation. These values persist across connections.

When the access token expires, the connector refreshes it automatically.

Azure Service Principal

Azure Service Principal is role-based application-based authentication. This means that authentication is done per application, rather than per user. All tasks taken on by the application are executed without a default user context, but based on the assigned roles. The application access to the resources is controlled through the assigned roles' permissions.

For information about how to set up Azure Service Principal authentication, see Creating an Azure AD Application with Service Principal.

Managed Service Identity (MSI)

If you are running Azure Synapse on an Azure VM and want to leverage MSI to connect, set AuthScheme to AzureMSI.

User-Managed Identities

To obtain a token for a managed identity, use the OAuthClientId property to specify the managed identity's "client_id".

When your VM has multiple user-assigned managed identities, you must also specify OAuthClientId.

  1. Client Secret
    • InitiateOAuth: Set this to GETANDREFRESH. You can use InitiateOAuth to avoid repeating the OAuth exchange and manually setting the OAuthAccessToken.
    • AzureTenant: Set this to the tenant you wish to connect to.
    • OAuthGrantType: Set this to CLIENT.
    • OAuthClientId: Set this to the client ID in your app settings.
    • OAuthClientSecret: Set this to the client secret in your app settings.
  2. Certificate
    • InitiateOAuth: Set this to GETANDREFRESH. You can use InitiateOAuth to avoid repeating the OAuth exchange and manually setting the OAuthAccessToken.
    • AzureTenant: Set this to the tenant you wish to connect to.
    • OAuthGrantType: Set this to CLIENT.
    • OAuthClientId: Set this to the client ID in your app settings.
    • OAuthJWTCert: Set this to the JWT Certificate store.
    • OAuthJWTCertType: Set this to the type of the certificate store specified by OAuthJWTCert.

Create an Azure AD Application

Create an Azure AD Application

Azure Synapse supports user-based authentication using Azure AD. This authentication is OAuth-based.

To connect to Azure Synapse via the Web, you must always create a custom application, as described here.

Custom OAuth applications are useful if you want to:

  • Control branding of the authentication dialog.
  • Control the redirect URI that the application redirects the user to after the user authenticates.
  • Customize the permissions that you are requesting from the user.
Authenticate With Azure AD

In <https://portal.azure.com>:

  1. In the left-hand navigation pane, select Azure Active Directory > App registrations.

  2. Click New registration.

  3. Enter a name for the application.

  4. Specify the types of accounts this application should support:

    • For private use applications, select Accounts in this organization directory only.
    • For distributed applications, select one of the multi-tenant options.

Note

If you select Accounts in this organizational directory only (default), when you establish a connection with Jitterbit Connector for Azure Synapse you must set AzureTenant to the ID of the Azure AD Tenant. Otherwise, the authentication attempt fails.

  1. Set the redirect URI to http://localhost:33333 (default) OR, if you want to

    specify a different port, specify the desired port and set CallbackURL to the exact reply URL you just defined.

  2. To register the new application, click Register. An application management screen displays. Record these values for later use. (You will use the Application (client) ID value to set the OAuthClientId parameters, and the Directory (tenant) ID value to set the AzureTenant parameter.)

  3. Navigate to Certificates & Secrets. Select New Client Secret for this application and specify the desired duration. After the client secret is saved, the Azure App Registration displays the key value. This value is displayed only once, so record it for future use. (You will use it to set the OAuthClientSecret.)

  4. If you have specified the use of permissions that require admin consent (such as the Application Permissions), you can grant them from the current tenant on the API Permissions page.

Create an Azure AD Application with Service Principal

Create an Azure AD Application with Service Principal

Azure Synapse supports Service Principal-based authentication, which is role-based. If you wish to use a Service Principal to authenticate to Azure Synapse you must create a custom Azure AD application as described here. To use Azure Service Principal authentication, you must set up the ability to assign a role to the authentication application, then register an application with the Azure AD tenant to create a new Service Principal. That new Service Principal can then leverage the assigned role-based access control to access resources in your subscription.

Authenticate with an Azure Service Principal

In <https://portal.azure.com>:

  1. In the left-hand navigation pane, select Azure Active Directory > App registrations.
  2. Click New registration.
  3. Enter a name for the application.
  4. Select the desired tenant setup. Since this custom application is for Azure Service Principal, choose Any Microsoft Entra ID tenant - Multi Tenant.
  5. To register the new application, click Register. An application management screen displays.
    Note the value in Application (client) ID as the OAuthClientId and the Directory (tenant) ID as the AzureTenant.
  6. Navigate to Certificates & Secrets and define the application authentication type. There are two types of authentication available: certificate (recommended) or client secret.
    • For certificate authentication: In Certificates & Secrets, select Upload certificate, then upload the certificate from your local machine. For an example of how to create this certificate, see https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/entra/identity-platform/howto-create-self-signed-certificate.
    • For creating a new client secret: In Certificates & Secrets, select New Client Secret for the application and specify its duration. After the client secret is saved, Azure Synapse displays the key value. This value is displayed only once, so record it for future use. (This value becomes the OAuthClientSecret.)
  7. Navigate to the Authentication tab and select the Access tokens option.
  8. Save your changes.

OAuth supports the use of client credentials to authenticate. In a client credentials authentication flow, credentials are created for the authenticating application itself. The auth flow acts just like the usual auth flow, except that there is no prompt for an associated user to provide credentials.

All tasks accepted by the application are executed outside of the context of a default user.

Note

Since the embedded OAuth credentials authenticate on a per-user basis, you cannot

use them in a client authentication flow. You must always create a custom Azure AD application to use client credentials.

In <https://portal.azure.com>:

  1. Create a custom Azure AD application, as described above.
  2. Navigate to App Registrations.
  3. Find the application you just created, and open API Permissions.
  4. Select the Microsoft Graph permissions. There are two distinct sets of permissions: Delegated and Application.
  5. For use with Service Principal, specify Application permissions.
  6. Select the permissions you require for your integration.

Important Notes

Configuration Files and Their Paths

  • All references to adding configuration files and their paths refer to files and locations on the Harmony agent where the connector is installed. These paths are to be adjusted as appropriate depending on the agent and the operating system. If multiple agents are used in an agent group, identical files will be required on each agent.

Advanced Features

This section details a selection of advanced features of the Azure Synapse connector.

SSL Configuration

Use SSL Configuration to adjust how connector handles TLS/SSL certificate negotiations. You can choose from various certificate formats; see the SSLServerCert property under "Connection String Options" for more information.

Proxy

To configure the connector using private agent proxy settings, select the Use Proxy Settings checkbox on the connection configuration screen.

SSL Configuration

Customize the SSL Configuration

By default, the connector attempts to negotiate SSL/TLS by checking the server's certificate against the system's trusted certificate store.

To specify another certificate, see the SSLServerCert property for the available formats to do so.

Client SSL Certificates

The Azure Synapse connector also supports setting client certificates. Set the following to connect using a client certificate.

  • SSLClientCert: The name of the certificate store for the client certificate.
  • SSLClientCertType: The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.
  • SSLClientCertPassword: The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.
  • SSLClientCertSubject: The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Stored Procedures

Stored procedures are function-like interfaces that extend the functionality of the connector beyond simple SELECT/INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE operations with Azure Synapse.

Stored procedures accept a list of parameters, perform their intended function, and then return any relevant response data from Azure Synapse, along with an indication of whether the procedure succeeded or failed.

Jitterbit Connector for Azure Synapse Stored Procedures

Name Description
GetOAuthAccessToken Gets an authentication token from AzureAD.
GetOAuthAuthorizationUrl Gets an authorization URL from the data source. The authorization URL can be used to generate a verifier required to obtain the OAuth token.
RefreshOAuthAccessToken Refreshes the OAuth access token used for authentication with AzureDataCatalog.

GetOAuthAccessToken

Gets an authentication token from AzureAD.

Input
Name Type Description
AuthMode String The allowed values are APP, WEB. The default value is APP.
Verifier String A verifier returned by the service that must be input to return the access token. Needed only when using the Web auth mode. Obtained by navigating to the URL returned in GetOAuthAuthorizationUrl.
Scope String The default value is https://database.windows.net/user_impersonation offline_access.
CallbackUrl String
State String Indicates any state which may be useful to your application upon receipt of the response. Your application receives the same value it sent, as this parameter makes a round-trip to the AzureDataCatalog authorization server and back. Uses include redirecting the user to the correct resource in your site, nonces, and cross-site-request-forgery mitigations.
Prompt String Defaults to 'select_account' which prompts the user to select account while authenticating. Set to 'None', for no prompt, 'login' to force user to enter their credentials or 'consent' to trigger the OAuth consent dialog after the user signs in, asking the user to grant permissions to the app.
Result Set Columns
Name Type Description
OAuthAccessToken String The access token used for communication with Azure AD.
OAuthRefreshToken String The OAuth refresh token. This is the same as the access token in the case of Azure AD.
ExpiresIn String The remaining lifetime on the access token. A -1 denotes that it will not expire.

GetOAuthAuthorizationUrl

Gets an authorization URL from the data source. The authorization URL can be used to generate a verifier required to obtain the OAuth token.

Input
Name Type Description
CallbackURL String The URL the user will be redirected to after authorizing your application.
Scope String The default value is https://database.windows.net/user_impersonation offline_access.
State String This field indicates any state that may be useful to your application upon receipt of the response. Your application receives the same value it sent, as this parameter makes a round-trip to Dynamics authorization server and back. Uses include redirecting the user to the correct resource in your site, using nonces, and mitigating cross-site request forgery.
Prompt String Defaults to 'select_account' which prompts the user to select account while authenticating. Set to 'None', for no prompt, 'login' to force user to enter their credentials or 'consent' to trigger the OAuth consent dialog after the user signs in, asking the user to grant permissions to the app.
Result Set Columns
Name Type Description
Url String The authorization URL that will need to be opened for the user to authorize your app.

RefreshOAuthAccessToken

Refreshes the OAuth access token used for authentication with AzureDataCatalog.

Input
Name Type Description
OAuthRefreshToken String Set this to the token value that expired.
Result Set Columns
Name Type Description
OAuthAccessToken String The authentication token returned from AzureDataCatalog. This can be used in subsequent calls to other operations for this particular service.
OAuthRefreshToken String This is the same as the access token.
ExpiresIn String The remaining lifetime on the access token.

Advanced Configurations Properties

The advanced configurations properties are the various options that can be used to establish a connection. This section provides a complete list of the options you can configure. Click the links for further details.

Authentication

Property Description
AuthScheme The scheme used for authentication. Accepted entries are Password, AzureAD, AzureServicePrincipal, AzureServicePrincipalCert, AzureMSI, AzurePassword.
Server The name of the server running Synapse.
User The Azure Synapse user account used to authenticate.
Password The password used to authenticate the user.
Port The port of the Synapse.
Database The name of the Synapse database.
Encrypt This field sets whether SSL is enabled.

Bulk

Property Description
BatchMode The Batch Mode of Azure Synapse bulkInsert.
StorageAccountLocation The Storage Account Location for staging your data.
AzureSASToken The string value of the Azure Blob shared access signature.

Azure Authentication

Property Description
AzureTenant The Microsoft Online tenant being used to access data. If not specified, your default tenant is used.
AzureEnvironment The Azure Environment to use when establishing a connection.

OAuth

Property Description
InitiateOAuth Set this property to initiate the process to obtain or refresh the OAuth access token when you connect.
OAuthClientId The client ID assigned when you register your application with an OAuth authorization server.
OAuthClientSecret The client secret assigned when you register your application with an OAuth authorization server.
OAuthAccessToken The access token for connecting using OAuth.
OAuthSettingsLocation The location of the settings file where OAuth values are saved when InitiateOAuth is set to GETANDREFRESH or REFRESH . Alternatively, you can hold this location in memory by specifying a value starting with 'memory://'.
CallbackURL The OAuth callback URL to return to when authenticating. This value must match the callback URL you specify in your app settings.
OAuthGrantType The grant type for the OAuth flow.
OAuthVerifier The verifier code returned from the OAuth authorization URL.
OAuthRefreshToken The OAuth refresh token for the corresponding OAuth access token.
OAuthExpiresIn The lifetime in seconds of the OAuth AccessToken.
OAuthTokenTimestamp The Unix epoch timestamp in milliseconds when the current Access Token was created.

JWT OAuth

Property Description
OAuthJWTCert The JWT Certificate store.
OAuthJWTCertType The type of key store containing the JWT Certificate.
OAuthJWTCertPassword The password for the OAuth JWT certificate.
OAuthJWTCertSubject The subject of the OAuth JWT certificate.

SSL

Property Description
SSLClientCert The TLS/SSL client certificate store for SSL Client Authentication (2-way SSL).
SSLClientCertType The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertPassword The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertSubject The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLServerCert The certificate to be accepted from the server when connecting using TLS/SSL.

Schema

Property Description
Location A path to the directory that contains the schema files defining tables, views, and stored procedures.
BrowsableSchemas This property restricts the schemas reported to a subset of the available schemas. For example, BrowsableSchemas=SchemaA, SchemaB, SchemaC.
Tables This property restricts the tables reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Tables=TableA, TableB, TableC.
Views Restricts the views reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Views=ViewA, ViewB, ViewC.

Miscellaneous

Property Description
CustomizeDateFormat Configure the Date format.
ApplicationIntent Expresses the client application's request to be directed either to a read-write or read-only version of an availability group database.
EnableTransaction Determines whether transactions are enabled.
MaxRows Limits the number of rows returned when no aggregation or GROUP BY is used in the query. This takes precedence over LIMIT clauses.
Other These hidden properties are used only in specific use cases.
QueryPassthrough This option passes the query to the Azure Synapse server as is.
Timeout The value in seconds until the timeout error is thrown, canceling the operation.

Authentication

This section provides a complete list of authentication properties you can configure.

Property Description
AuthScheme The scheme used for authentication. Accepted entries are Password, AzureAD, AzureServicePrincipal, AzureServicePrincipalCert, AzureMSI, AzurePassword.
Server The name of the server running Synapse.
User The Azure Synapse user account used to authenticate.
Password The password used to authenticate the user.
Port The port of the Synapse.
Database The name of the Synapse database.
Encrypt This field sets whether SSL is enabled.

AuthScheme

The scheme used for authentication. Accepted entries are Password, AzureAD, AzureServicePrincipal, AzureServicePrincipalCert, AzureMSI, AzurePassword.

Possible Values

Password, AzureAD, AzurePassword, AzureMSI, AzureServicePrincipal, AzureServicePrincipalCert

Data Type

string

Default Value

Password

Remarks
  • AzureAD: Set this to perform Azure Active Directory OAuth authentication.
  • AzureMSI: Set this to automatically obtain Managed Service Identity credentials when running on an Azure VM.
  • AzureServicePrincipal: Set this to authenticate as an Azure Service Principal using a Client Secret.
  • AzureServicePrincipalCert: Set this to authenticate as an Azure Service Principal using a Certificate.

Together with Password and User, this field is used to authenticate against the server. Password is the default option. Use the following options to select your authentication scheme:

  • Password: Set this to use your SQL Server Password.
  • AzureAD: Set this to use Azure Active Directory OAuth authentication.
  • AzureServicePrincipal: Set this to authenticate as an Azure Service Principal.
  • AzureServicePrincipalCert: Set this to authenticate as an Azure Service Principal using a certificate.
  • AzureMSI: Set this to use Azure Active Directory Managed Service Identity authentication.
  • AzurePassword: Set this to use Azure Active Directory Password authentication.

Server

The name of the server running Synapse.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Set this property to the name or network address of the Synapse instance.

User

The Azure Synapse user account used to authenticate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Together with Password, this field is used to authenticate against the Azure Synapse server.

Password

The password used to authenticate the user.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The User and Password are together used to authenticate with the server.

Port

The port of the Synapse.

Data Type

string

Default Value

1433

Remarks

The port of the Server hosting the Synapse Database.

Database

The name of the Synapse database.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The name of the Synapse database running on the specified Server.

Encrypt

This field sets whether SSL is enabled.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

false

Remarks

This field sets whether the connector will attempt to negotiate TLS/SSL connections to the server. By default, the connector checks the server's certificate against the system's trusted certificate store. To specify another certificate, set SSLServerCert.

Bulk

This section provides a complete list of the Bulk properties you can configure.

Property Description
BatchMode The Batch Mode of Azure Synapse bulkInsert.
StorageAccountLocation The Storage Account Location for staging your data.
AzureSASToken The string value of the Azure Blob shared access signature.

BatchMode

The Batch Mode of Azure Synapse bulkInsert.

Possible Values

BCP, COPY, STANDARD

Data Type

string

Default Value

COPY

Remarks

COPY utilizes an external storage account to load data into and then copy into your Azure Synapse table. You will also need to set the StorageAccountLocation and the AzureSASToken, which only supports INSERT statement. BCP transfers data to Azure Synapse directly with BulkLoadBCP protocol through the TCP communication between client and server, which only supports INSERT statements. STANDARD uses standard INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE statements for batch operations.

StorageAccountLocation

The Storage Account Location for staging your data.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Specify the file location in AzureBlob(only for COPY mode).

"myaccount" here is your Azure Blob account name, "myblobcontainer" is the Blob container you want to use. For example: https://myaccount.blob.core.windows.net/myblobcontainer/...

AzureSASToken

The string value of the Azure Blob shared access signature.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The string value of the Azure Blob shared access signature.

You can go to "Shared access signature" in "Settings" section for your Azure Blob container through Azure Portal, then click "Generate SAS token and URL" and copy the value from "Blob SAS token" textbox. Please be cautionus to select the proper permission (Create, Write, Delete) in "Permissions" dropdown list and validity of Start and Expiry time before you generate SAS token.

Azure Authentication

This section provides a complete list of Azure authentication properties you can configure.

Property Description
AzureTenant The Microsoft Online tenant being used to access data. If not specified, your default tenant is used.
AzureEnvironment The Azure Environment to use when establishing a connection.

AzureTenant

The Microsoft Online tenant being used to access data. If not specified, your default tenant is used.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The Microsoft Online tenant being used to access data. For instance, contoso.onmicrosoft.com. Alternatively, specify the tenant Id. This value is the directory ID in the Azure Portal > Azure Active Directory > Properties.

Typically it is not necessary to specify the Tenant. This can be automatically determined by Microsoft when using the OAuthGrantType set to CODE (default). However, it may fail in the case that the user belongs to multiple tenants. For instance, if an Admin of domain A invites a user of domain B to be a guest user. The user will now belong to both tenants. It is a good practice to specify the Tenant, although in general things should normally work without having to specify it.

The AzureTenant is required when setting OAuthGrantType to CLIENT. When using client credentials, there is no user context. The credentials are taken from the context of the app itself. While Microsoft still allows client credentials to be obtained without specifying which Tenant, it has a much lower probability of picking the specific tenant you want to work with. For this reason, we require AzureTenant to be explicitly stated for all client credentials connections to ensure you get credentials that are applicable for the domain you intend to connect to.

AzureEnvironment

The Azure Environment to use when establishing a connection.

Possible Values

GLOBAL, CHINA, USGOVT, USGOVTDOD

Data Type

string

Default Value

GLOBAL

Remarks

In most cases, leaving the environment set to global will work. However, if your Azure Account has been added to a different environment, the AzureEnvironment may be used to specify which environment. The available values are GLOBAL, CHINA, USGOVT, USGOVTDOD.

OAuth

This section provides a complete list of OAuth properties you can configure.

Property Description
InitiateOAuth Set this property to initiate the process to obtain or refresh the OAuth access token when you connect.
OAuthClientId The client ID assigned when you register your application with an OAuth authorization server.
OAuthClientSecret The client secret assigned when you register your application with an OAuth authorization server.
OAuthAccessToken The access token for connecting using OAuth.
OAuthSettingsLocation The location of the settings file where OAuth values are saved when InitiateOAuth is set to GETANDREFRESH or REFRESH . Alternatively, you can hold this location in memory by specifying a value starting with 'memory://'.
CallbackURL The OAuth callback URL to return to when authenticating. This value must match the callback URL you specify in your app settings.
OAuthGrantType The grant type for the OAuth flow.
OAuthVerifier The verifier code returned from the OAuth authorization URL.
OAuthRefreshToken The OAuth refresh token for the corresponding OAuth access token.
OAuthExpiresIn The lifetime in seconds of the OAuth AccessToken.
OAuthTokenTimestamp The Unix epoch timestamp in milliseconds when the current Access Token was created.

InitiateOAuth

Set this property to initiate the process to obtain or refresh the OAuth access token when you connect.

Possible Values

OFF, GETANDREFRESH, REFRESH

Data Type

string

Default Value

OFF

Remarks

The following options are available:

  1. OFF: Indicates that the OAuth flow will be handled entirely by the user. An OAuthAccessToken will be required to authenticate.
  2. GETANDREFRESH: Indicates that the entire OAuth Flow will be handled by the connector. If no token currently exists, it will be obtained by prompting the user via the browser. If a token exists, it will be refreshed when applicable.
  3. REFRESH: Indicates that the connector will only handle refreshing the OAuthAccessToken. The user will never be prompted by the connector to authenticate via the browser. The user must handle obtaining the OAuthAccessToken and OAuthRefreshToken initially.

OAuthClientId

The client ID assigned when you register your application with an OAuth authorization server.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

As part of registering an OAuth application, you will receive the OAuthClientId value, sometimes also called a consumer key, and a client secret, the OAuthClientSecret.

OAuthClientSecret

The client secret assigned when you register your application with an OAuth authorization server.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

As part of registering an OAuth application, you will receive the OAuthClientId, also called a consumer key. You will also receive a client secret, also called a consumer secret. Set the client secret in the OAuthClientSecret property.

OAuthAccessToken

The access token for connecting using OAuth.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The OAuthAccessToken property is used to connect using OAuth. The OAuthAccessToken is retrieved from the OAuth server as part of the authentication process. It has a server-dependent timeout and can be reused between requests.

The access token is used in place of your user name and password. The access token protects your credentials by keeping them on the server.

OAuthSettingsLocation

The location of the settings file where OAuth values are saved when InitiateOAuth is set to GETANDREFRESH or REFRESH . Alternatively, you can hold this location in memory by specifying a value starting with 'memory://'.

Data Type

string

Default Value

%APPDATA%\AzureSynapse Data Provider\OAuthSettings.txt

Remarks

When InitiateOAuth is set to GETANDREFRESH or REFRESH, the connector saves OAuth values to avoid requiring the user to manually enter OAuth connection properties and to allow the credentials to be shared across connections or processes.

Instead of specifying a file path, you can use memory storage. Memory locations are specified by using a value starting with 'memory://' followed by a unique identifier for that set of credentials (for example, memory://user1). The identifier can be anything you choose but should be unique to the user. Unlike file-based storage, where credentials persist across connections, memory storage loads the credentials into static memory, and the credentials are shared between connections using the same identifier for the life of the process. To persist credentials outside the current process, you must manually store the credentials prior to closing the connection. This enables you to set them in the connection when the process is started again. You can retrieve OAuth property values with a query to the sys_connection_props system table. If there are multiple connections using the same credentials, the properties are read from the previously closed connection.

The default location is "%APPDATA%\AzureSynapse Data Provider\OAuthSettings.txt" with %APPDATA% set to the user's configuration directory. The default values are

  • Windows: "register://%DSN"
  • Unix: "%AppData%..."
  • Mac: "%AppData%..."

where DSN is the name of the current DSN used in the open connection.

The following table lists the value of %APPDATA% by OS:

Platform %APPDATA%
Windows The value of the APPDATA environment variable
Mac ~/Library/Application Support
Linux ~/.config

CallbackURL

The OAuth callback URL to return to when authenticating. This value must match the callback URL you specify in your app settings.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

During the authentication process, the OAuth authorization server redirects the user to this URL. This value must match the callback URL you specify in your app settings.

OAuthGrantType

The grant type for the OAuth flow.

Possible Values

CODE, CLIENT, PASSWORD

Data Type

string

Default Value

CLIENT

Remarks

The following options are available: CODE,CLIENT,PASSWORD

OAuthVerifier

The verifier code returned from the OAuth authorization URL.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The verifier code returned from the OAuth authorization URL. This can be used on systems where a browser cannot be launched such as headless systems.

Authentication on Headless Machines

See to obtain the OAuthVerifier value.

Set OAuthSettingsLocation along with OAuthVerifier. When you connect, the connector exchanges the OAuthVerifier for the OAuth authentication tokens and saves them, encrypted, to the specified location. Set InitiateOAuth to GETANDREFRESH to automate the exchange.

Once the OAuth settings file has been generated, you can remove OAuthVerifier from the connection properties and connect with OAuthSettingsLocation set.

To automatically refresh the OAuth token values, set OAuthSettingsLocation and additionally set InitiateOAuth to REFRESH.

OAuthRefreshToken

The OAuth refresh token for the corresponding OAuth access token.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The OAuthRefreshToken property is used to refresh the OAuthAccessToken when using OAuth authentication.

OAuthExpiresIn

The lifetime in seconds of the OAuth AccessToken.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Pair with OAuthTokenTimestamp to determine when the AccessToken will expire.

OAuthTokenTimestamp

The Unix epoch timestamp in milliseconds when the current Access Token was created.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Pair with OAuthExpiresIn to determine when the AccessToken will expire.

JWT OAuth

This section provides a complete list of JWT OAuth properties you can configure.

Property Description
OAuthJWTCert The JWT Certificate store.
OAuthJWTCertType The type of key store containing the JWT Certificate.
OAuthJWTCertPassword The password for the OAuth JWT certificate.
OAuthJWTCertSubject The subject of the OAuth JWT certificate.

OAuthJWTCert

The JWT Certificate store.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The name of the certificate store for the client certificate.

The OAuthJWTCertType field specifies the type of the certificate store specified by OAuthJWTCert. If the store is password protected, specify the password in OAuthJWTCertPassword.

OAuthJWTCert is used in conjunction with the OAuthJWTCertSubject

field in order to specify client certificates. If OAuthJWTCert has a value, and OAuthJWTCertSubject is set, a search for a certificate is initiated. Please refer to the OAuthJWTCertSubject field for details.

Designations of certificate stores are platform-dependent.

The following are designations of the most common User and Machine certificate stores in Windows:

Property Description
MY A certificate store holding personal certificates with their associated private keys.
CA Certifying authority certificates.
ROOT Root certificates.
SPC Software publisher certificates.

In Java, the certificate store normally is a file containing certificates and optional private keys.

When the certificate store type is PFXFile, this property must be set to the name of the file. When the type is PFXBlob, the property must be set to the binary contents of a PFX file (i.e. PKCS12 certificate store).

OAuthJWTCertType

The type of key store containing the JWT Certificate.

Possible Values

USER, MACHINE, PFXFILE, PFXBLOB, JKSFILE, JKSBLOB, PEMKEY_FILE, PEMKEY_BLOB, PUBLIC_KEY_FILE, PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, P7BFILE, PPKFILE, XMLFILE, XMLBLOB

Data Type

string

Default Value

USER

Remarks

This property can take one of the following values:

Property Description
USER For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a certificate store owned by the current user. Note: This store type is not available in Java.
MACHINE For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a machine store. Note: this store type is not available in Java.
PFXFILE The certificate store is the name of a PFX (PKCS12) file containing certificates.
PFXBLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in PFX (PKCS12) format.
JKSFILE The certificate store is the name of a Java key store (JKS) file containing certificates. Note: this store type is only available in Java.
JKSBLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in Java key store (JKS) format. Note: this store type is only available in Java.
PEMKEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a PEM-encoded file that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PEMKEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base64-encoded) that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains an SSH-style public key.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) that contains an SSH-style public key.
P7BFILE The certificate store is the name of a PKCS7 file containing certificates.
PPKFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PPK (PuTTY Private Key).
XMLFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a certificate in XML format.
XMLBLOB The certificate store is a string that contains a certificate in XML format.

OAuthJWTCertPassword

The password for the OAuth JWT certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

If the certificate store is of a type that requires a password, this property is used to specify that password in order to open the certificate store.

OAuthJWTCertSubject

The subject of the OAuth JWT certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

*

Remarks

When loading a certificate the subject is used to locate the certificate in the store.

If an exact match is not found, the store is searched for subjects containing the value of the property.

If a match is still not found, the property is set to an empty string, and no certificate is selected.

The special value "*" picks the first certificate in the certificate store.

The certificate subject is a comma separated list of distinguished name fields and values. For instance "CN=www.server.com, OU=test, C=US, E=example@jbexample.com". Common fields and their meanings are displayed below.

Field Meaning
CN Common Name. This is commonly a host name like www.server.com.
O Organization
OU Organizational Unit
L Locality
S State
C Country
E Email Address

If a field value contains a comma it must be quoted.

SSL

This section provides a complete list of SSL properties you can configure.

Property Description
SSLClientCert The TLS/SSL client certificate store for SSL Client Authentication (2-way SSL).
SSLClientCertType The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertPassword The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLClientCertSubject The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.
SSLServerCert The certificate to be accepted from the server when connecting using TLS/SSL.

SSLClientCert

The TLS/SSL client certificate store for SSL Client Authentication (2-way SSL).

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The name of the certificate store for the client certificate.

The SSLClientCertType field specifies the type of the certificate store specified by SSLClientCert. If the store is password protected, specify the password in SSLClientCertPassword.

SSLClientCert is used in conjunction with the SSLClientCertSubject field in order to specify client certificates. If SSLClientCert has a value, and SSLClientCertSubject is set, a search for a certificate is initiated. See SSLClientCertSubject for more information.

Designations of certificate stores are platform-dependent.

The following are designations of the most common User and Machine certificate stores in Windows:

Property Description
MY A certificate store holding personal certificates with their associated private keys.
CA Certifying authority certificates.
ROOT Root certificates.
SPC Software publisher certificates.

In Java, the certificate store normally is a file containing certificates and optional private keys.

When the certificate store type is PFXFile, this property must be set to the name of the file. When the type is PFXBlob, the property must be set to the binary contents of a PFX file (for example, PKCS12 certificate store).

SSLClientCertType

The type of key store containing the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Possible Values

USER, MACHINE, PFXFILE, PFXBLOB, JKSFILE, JKSBLOB, PEMKEY_FILE, PEMKEY_BLOB, PUBLIC_KEY_FILE, PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE, SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB, P7BFILE, PPKFILE, XMLFILE, XMLBLOB

Data Type

string

Default Value

USER

Remarks

This property can take one of the following values:

Property Description
USER - default For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a certificate store owned by the current user. Note that this store type is not available in Java.
MACHINE For Windows, this specifies that the certificate store is a machine store. Note that this store type is not available in Java.
PFXFILE The certificate store is the name of a PFX (PKCS12) file containing certificates.
PFXBLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in PFX (PKCS12) format.
JKSFILE The certificate store is the name of a Java key store (JKS) file containing certificates. Note that this store type is only available in Java.
JKSBLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) representing a certificate store in JKS format. Note that this store type is only available in Java.
PEMKEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a PEM-encoded file that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PEMKEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base64-encoded) that contains a private key and an optional certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
PUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) that contains a PEM- or DER-encoded public key certificate.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_FILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains an SSH-style public key.
SSHPUBLIC_KEY_BLOB The certificate store is a string (base-64-encoded) that contains an SSH-style public key.
P7BFILE The certificate store is the name of a PKCS7 file containing certificates.
PPKFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a PuTTY Private Key (PPK).
XMLFILE The certificate store is the name of a file that contains a certificate in XML format.
XMLBLOB The certificate store is a string that contains a certificate in XML format.

SSLClientCertPassword

The password for the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

If the certificate store is of a type that requires a password, this property is used to specify that password to open the certificate store.

SSLClientCertSubject

The subject of the TLS/SSL client certificate.

Data Type

string

Default Value

*

Remarks

When loading a certificate the subject is used to locate the certificate in the store.

If an exact match is not found, the store is searched for subjects containing the value of the property. If a match is still not found, the property is set to an empty string, and no certificate is selected.

The special value "*" picks the first certificate in the certificate store.

The certificate subject is a comma separated list of distinguished name fields and values. For example, "CN=www.server.com, OU=test, C=US, E=support@company.com". The common fields and their meanings are shown below.

Field Meaning
CN Common Name. This is commonly a host name like www.server.com.
O Organization
OU Organizational Unit
L Locality
S State
C Country
E Email Address

If a field value contains a comma, it must be quoted.

SSLServerCert

The certificate to be accepted from the server when connecting using TLS/SSL.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

If using a TLS/SSL connection, this property can be used to specify the TLS/SSL certificate to be accepted from the server. Any other certificate that is not trusted by the machine is rejected.

This property can take the following forms:

Description Example
A full PEM Certificate (example shortened for brevity) -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- MIIChTCCAe4CAQAwDQYJKoZIhv......Qw== -----END CERTIFICATE-----
A path to a local file containing the certificate C:\\cert.cer
The public key (example shortened for brevity) -----BEGIN RSA PUBLIC KEY----- MIGfMA0GCSq......AQAB -----END RSA PUBLIC KEY-----
The MD5 Thumbprint (hex values can also be either space or colon separated) ecadbdda5a1529c58a1e9e09828d70e4
The SHA1 Thumbprint (hex values can also be either space or colon separated) 34a929226ae0819f2ec14b4a3d904f801cbb150d

If not specified, any certificate trusted by the machine is accepted.

Certificates are validated as trusted by the machine based on the System's trust store. The trust store used is the 'javax.net.ssl.trustStore' value specified for the system. If no value is specified for this property, Java's default trust store is used (for example, JAVA_HOME\lib\security\cacerts).

Use '*' to signify to accept all certificates. Note that this is not recommended due to security concerns.

Schema

This section provides a complete list of schema properties you can configure.

Property Description
Location A path to the directory that contains the schema files defining tables, views, and stored procedures.
BrowsableSchemas This property restricts the schemas reported to a subset of the available schemas. For example, BrowsableSchemas=SchemaA, SchemaB, SchemaC.
Tables This property restricts the tables reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Tables=TableA, TableB, TableC.
Views Restricts the views reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Views=ViewA, ViewB, ViewC.

Location

A path to the directory that contains the schema files defining tables, views, and stored procedures.

Data Type

string

Default Value

%APPDATA%\AzureSynapse Data Provider\Schema

Remarks

The path to a directory which contains the schema files for the connector (.rsd files for tables and views, .rsb files for stored procedures). The folder location can be a relative path from the location of the executable. The Location property is only needed if you want to customize definitions (for example, change a column name, ignore a column, and so on) or extend the data model with new tables, views, or stored procedures.

If left unspecified, the default location is "%APPDATA%\AzureSynapse Data Provider\Schema" with %APPDATA% being set to the user's configuration directory:

Platform %APPDATA%
Windows The value of the APPDATA environment variable
Mac ~/Library/Application Support
Linux ~/.config

BrowsableSchemas

This property restricts the schemas reported to a subset of the available schemas. For example, BrowsableSchemas=SchemaA,SchemaB,SchemaC.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Listing the schemas from databases can be expensive. Providing a list of schemas in the connection string improves the performance.

Tables

This property restricts the tables reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Tables=TableA,TableB,TableC.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Listing the tables from some databases can be expensive. Providing a list of tables in the connection string improves the performance of the connector.

This property can also be used as an alternative to automatically listing views if you already know which ones you want to work with and there would otherwise be too many to work with.

Specify the tables you want in a comma-separated list. Each table should be a valid SQL identifier with any special characters escaped using square brackets, double-quotes or backticks. For example, Tables=TableA,[TableB/WithSlash],WithCatalog.WithSchema.`TableC With Space`.

Note that when connecting to a data source with multiple schemas or catalogs, you will need to provide the fully qualified name of the table in this property, as in the last example here, to avoid ambiguity between tables that exist in multiple catalogs or schemas.

Views

Restricts the views reported to a subset of the available tables. For example, Views=ViewA,ViewB,ViewC.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

Listing the views from some databases can be expensive. Providing a list of views in the connection string improves the performance of the connector.

This property can also be used as an alternative to automatically listing views if you already know which ones you want to work with and there would otherwise be too many to work with.

Specify the views you want in a comma-separated list. Each view should be a valid SQL identifier with any special characters escaped using square brackets, double-quotes or backticks. For example, Views=ViewA,[ViewB/WithSlash],WithCatalog.WithSchema.`ViewC With Space`.

Note that when connecting to a data source with multiple schemas or catalogs, you will need to provide the fully qualified name of the table in this property, as in the last example here, to avoid ambiguity between tables that exist in multiple catalogs or schemas.

Miscellaneous

This section provides a complete list of miscellaneous properties you can configure.

Property Description
CustomizeDateFormat Configure the Date format.
ApplicationIntent Expresses the client application's request to be directed either to a read-write or read-only version of an availability group database.
EnableTransaction Determines whether transactions are enabled.
MaxRows Limits the number of rows returned when no aggregation or GROUP BY is used in the query. This takes precedence over LIMIT clauses.
Other These hidden properties are used only in specific use cases.
QueryPassthrough This option passes the query to the Azure Synapse server as is.
Timeout The value in seconds until the timeout error is thrown, canceling the operation.

CustomizeDateFormat

Configure the Date format.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The Date format can be customized by this property.

ApplicationIntent

Expresses the client application's request to be directed either to a read-write or read-only version of an availability group database.

Data Type

string

Default Value

ReadWrite

Remarks

To use read-only routing, a client must use an application intent of read-only in the connection string when connecting to the availability group listener. Without the read-only application intent, connections to the availability group listener are directed to the database on the primary replica.

ApplicationIntent allows you to connect to a read-only secondary when connecting to an Availability Group Listener.

EnableTransaction

Determines whether transactions are enabled.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

true

Remarks

Determines whether transactions are enabled. When set to false, any operation that would involve a transaction is treated as a no-op. Serverless SQL pools do not support transactions, so this property is required to be false when working with tools that utilize transactions. Dedicated SQL pools do support transactions, so this option can be enabled if transaction support is required.

MaxRows

Limits the number of rows returned when no aggregation or GROUP BY is used in the query. This takes precedence over LIMIT clauses.

Data Type

int

Default Value

-1

Remarks

Limits the number of rows returned when no aggregation or GROUP BY is used in the query. This takes precedence over LIMIT clauses.

Other

These hidden properties are used only in specific use cases.

Data Type

string

Default Value

""

Remarks

The properties listed below are available for specific use cases. Normal driver use cases and functionality should not require these properties.

Specify multiple properties in a semicolon-separated list.

Integration and Formatting
Property Description
DefaultColumnSize Sets the default length of string fields when the data source does not provide column length in the metadata. The default value is 2000.
ConvertDateTimeToGMT Determines whether to convert date-time values to GMT, instead of the local time of the machine.
RecordToFile=filename Records the underlying socket data transfer to the specified file.

QueryPassthrough

This option passes the query to the Azure Synapse server as is.

Data Type

bool

Default Value

true

Remarks

When this is set, queries are passed through directly to Azure Synapse.

Timeout

The value in seconds until the timeout error is thrown, canceling the operation.

Data Type

int

Default Value

60

Remarks

If Timeout = 0, operations do not time out. The operations run until they complete successfully or until they encounter an error condition.

If Timeout expires and the operation is not yet complete, the connector throws an exception.